Presentation Punjabi of vocabulary in ‘Reckoning’ by Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi

Presentation Punjabi of vocabulary in ‘Reckoning’ by Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi.

1.Introduction and background
The field of code switching and code mixing has become a flourishing research field in the second language acquisition, over the last 25 years. It has also received attention from other diverse fields such as language teaching, anthropology , sociolinguistics ,psycholinguistics and formal linguistics .Since 2005, the percentage of code switching matches which found by the (Tsoukala 2008),code switching and code mixing are a wide spread phenomenon these days. A lot of researcher has been carried out on this issues In this research the data for analysis is carried put from the Reckoning.

With advancement in trade and worldwide communication, bilingualism and multilingualism have become most common sociolinguistics phenomenon which include switching and mixing of codes of different language into one another to interact and get the message across successfully. Code switching and code mixing are the sociolinguistics which are frequent among such countries where majority of people are either bilingual or multilingual. This research explains the usage of code switching and code mixing in the Reckoning. Switching and code mixing of codes are well known phenomenon in bilingual communication, in which the speaker use his 1st language and 2nd language in different domains. Sometime the switch is from 1st language towards 2nd language and sometime the situation is reverse. Code mixing is the switching with in a sentence while code switching is the switching of two different language between two different sentences(inter-sentential).

2.Theoretical framework
In this research we will use an observational study,which will based on descriptive analysis . In this research Reckoning will be analyzed under an observational study and Hoffman’s seven reasons for code switching and code mixing
3.Literature review
To prepare the ground for the present day, related literature is reviewed. This chapter brings light into the different researches conducted by different sociolinguists in the field of code switching and code mixing. A lot of investigation has been carried out on these phenomena with different language pairs to investigate the reason, factors and attitude of the people to switch and mix the languages. It is not possible to describe all the researches regarding this phenomenon, so, some of them are briefly touched in this chapter.

ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Canagarajah;/Author;;Year;1995;/Year;;RecNum;9;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Canagarajah 1995);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;9;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=;EN; db-id=;rts29xearav0sqeefv2xadvlsrs9rra2rsaa;;9;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=;Journal Article;;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Canagarajah, A Suresh;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Functions of codeswitching in ESL classrooms: Socialising bilingualism in Jaffna;/title;;secondary-title;Journal of Multilingual ;amp; Multicultural Development;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Journal of Multilingual ;amp; Multicultural Development;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;173-195;/pages;;volume;16;/volume;;number;3;/number;;dates;;year;1995;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0143-4632;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;( HYPERLINK l ;_ENREF_8; o ;Canagarajah, 1995 #9; Canagarajah 1995)described the micro and macro roles of code switching and code mixing in Sri Lankan ESL classroom. The earlier comprises of classroom management and content transmission, and second consist of social matter separate from the classroom matters that may have effect on learning. ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Azuma;/Author;;Year;1993;/Year;;RecNum;10;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Azuma 1993);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;10;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=;EN; db-id=;rts29xearav0sqeefv2xadvlsrs9rra2rsaa;;10;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=;Journal Article;;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Azuma, Shoji;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The frame-content hypothesis in speech production: Evidence from intrasentential code switching;/title;;secondary-title;Linguistics;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Linguistics;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;1071-1094;/pages;;volume;31;/volume;;number;6;/number;;dates;;year;1993;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1613-396X;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;( HYPERLINK l ;_ENREF_5; o ;Azuma, 1993 #10; Azuma 1993)conducted a study on JapaneseEnglish code switching in Japan. The study investigates the lexical feature of code switching unite in a JapaneseEnglish environment in Japan. The data for this study was collected from natural conversation among in group female college student in Osaka Japan. All the selected students were native speakers of Japanese language and recently returned after one year of education at an American University. About five hour of conversation was tape-recorded in a relaxed and comfortable environment, without the presence of outsiders. The 2nd set of data collected from disc jockeys speech from American pop music programs from three FM radio: FM kiss, FM 802 and FM Osaka.

According to ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Okasha;/Author;;Year;1999;/Year;;RecNum;15;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Okasha, Ismail et al. 1999);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;15;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=;EN; db-id=;rts29xearav0sqeefv2xadvlsrs9rra2rsaa;;15;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=;Journal Article;;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Okasha, Ahmed;/author;;author;Ismail, Moustafa K;/author;;author;Khalil, Afaf H;/author;;author;El Fiki, Refaat;/author;;author;Soliman, Alaa;/author;;author;Okasha, Tarek;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;A psychiatric study of nonorganic chronic headache patients;/title;;secondary-title;Psychosomatics;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Psychosomatics;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;233-238;/pages;;volume;40;/volume;;number;3;/number;;dates;;year;1999;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0033-3182;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;( HYPERLINK l ;_ENREF_19; o ;Okasha, 1999 #15; Okasha, Ismail et al. 1999)) in her research in a university teaching framework in Libya on the phenomena of code mixing find that regardless of the country’s language policy which encourages the preservation and refinement of Arabic, Code mixing was an overriding phenomena in the observed discourse.

The point of view of ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Huber</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>18</RecNum><DisplayText>(Huber, Graf et al. 2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>18</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="rts29xearav0sqeefv2xadvlsrs9rra2rsaa">18</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Huber, Reto</author><author>Graf, Thomas</author><author>Cote, Kimberly A</author><author>Wittmann, Lutz</author><author>Gallmann, Eva</author><author>Matter, Daniel</author><author>Schuderer, JuÈrgen</author><author>Kuster, Niels</author><author>Borbély, Alexander A</author><author>Achermann, Peter</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Exposure to pulsed high?frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG</title><secondary-title>Neuroreport</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Neuroreport</full-title></periodical><pages>3321-3325</pages><volume>11</volume><number>15</number><dates><year>2000</year></dates><isbn>0959-4965</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>( HYPERLINK l "_ENREF_14" o "Huber, 2000 #18" Huber, Graf et al. 2000)studies the procedure of language change and maintenance in the bilingual community of Romanian which were living in Hungry. For the purpose of data collection, interviews were administered from 40 participants. The analyzed data showed code switching both in intra-language and inter-language, causes for such switching and the connection between age and frequency of code switching at the time of interview. Results also showed uneven race of majority and minority language at school.

If we examined the study of ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Warschauer</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>19</RecNum><DisplayText>(Warschauer, Said et al. 2002)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>19</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="rts29xearav0sqeefv2xadvlsrs9rra2rsaa">19</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Warschauer, Mark</author><author>Said, Ghada R El</author><author>Zohry, Ayman G</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Language choice online: Globalization and identity in Egypt</title><secondary-title>Journal of Computer?Mediated Communication</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Computer?Mediated Communication</full-title></periodical><pages>0-0</pages><volume>7</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2002</year></dates><isbn>1083-6101</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>( HYPERLINK l "_ENREF_27" o "Warschauer, 2002 #19" Warschauer, Said et al. 2002)Arabic and English language use in E-mail communication by a group of young professional. They found that English was used commonly at both location of formal (business related) E-mail communication and searching the internet. Among the 2 varieties of Arabic used in Egypt, classical and Egyptian Arabic, they found that a Romanized version of Egyptian Arabic was most recurrently used in informal E-mail messages and in online chat. Moreover this Romanized version was also favored by participants when they desired to express extremely personal content. In a similar study but with stylish procedure, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Knowler</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>20</RecNum><DisplayText>(Knowler, Fowler et al. 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>20</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="rts29xearav0sqeefv2xadvlsrs9rra2rsaa">20</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Knowler, William C</author><author>Fowler, Sarah E</author><author>Hamman, Richard F</author><author>Christophi, Costas A</author><author>Hoffman, Heather J</author><author>Brenneman, Anne T</author><author>Brown-Friday, Janet O</author><author>Goldberg, Ronald</author><author>Venditti, Elizabeth</author><author>Nathan, David M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study</title><secondary-title>Lancet (London, England)</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Lancet (London, England)</full-title></periodical><pages>1677-1686</pages><volume>374</volume><number>9702</number><dates><year>2009</year></dates><isbn>0140-6736</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>( HYPERLINK l "_ENREF_15" o "Knowler, 2009 #20" Knowler, Fowler et al. 2009) inspected the Spanish-English code switching in Latin American participants’ E-mail exchanges. She found that English was used frequently to deal with professional and work related matters whereas aSpanish (L1) was mostly used in communication that mirror a degree of closeness, group identification and informality.

4.Methodology
We will use Qualitative methodology in this research. Text is available and we will explore the text from different angels to get a different meaning.

Type of research
This research is qualitative in nature. We will read the test and explain the things and incidents.

Data collection
In this research we will collect required data from the text of ‘Reckoning’ by Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi.

Type of analysis:
In this research we will use an observational study,which will based on descriptive analysis . In this research Reckoning will be analyzed under an observational study and Hoffman’s seven reasons for code switching and code mixing .As following:
Talking about a particular topic:
In such case the speaker more feel comfort in expressing his feeling when he uses his/her first language because mother tongue has so much importance in creating intensity in speech
Quoting somebody else:
For getting famous or same expresion he qoutes well known figure , or any citation in its real written language for creating same expression.

Being emphatic about something:
She/he either intentionally or unintentionally will switch from his seconed language to his first language.

Interjection:
When the speaker is emotional he/she switch code for creating intensity in his/her speech.

Repetition used for classification:
When a bilingual wants to clearify his speech that it will be understandable by the listners. Something uses both of the language that he masters saying the same utterance.

Intention for clarifying the speech content for interlocuter:
When bilingual talks with another bilingual, there will be lots of code switching and code mixing occurs.

Expressing group identity:
The way of communication of academic people in their disciplinary groupings, or obiviously they want to look different from other groups.

5.Research objectives
To inspect the phenomenon of code-switching in Punjabi language .

The study also examines the fact of code mixing and code switching on language and its users.

This research will explain the reasons why bilingual people mix and switch the codes back and forth between two languages and what prompt to do so?
6.Research questions
Why Pakistani Urdu/English bilingual people switch codes in conversation ?
What are the common reasons for the phenomenon of code switching between Pakistani Urdu-English bilinguals in conversation?
What are the facts of code switching and code mixing on people and their language?
What are the specific prompts in which bilingual mix the code a lot?
7. Significance of the research
This research is an addition to the prevailing literature on code switching especially in Reckoning. Facts and findings are gained from the study are helpful to offer and understanding of how and why code switching takes place not merely in verbal but also in written form .This study is important because with the help of this research a bilingual will become conscious about the phenomenon of code switching and mixing that occurs during or conversation.

8. Purpose of the study
In this research we investigate code switching and code mixing in Rackning by Ahmad Nadeem Qasim.This study aims to make the people aware about they linguist phenomenon of code switching and code mixing who employ this phenomenon unconsciously in their conversation.
9.References
Cakrawarti, D. A. (2011). Analysis of code switching and code mixing in the teenlit Canting Cantiq by Dyan Nuranindya, University of Diponegoro.

Canagarajah, A. S. (1995). "Functions of codeswitching in ESL classrooms: Socialising bilingualism in Jaffna." Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development 16(3): 173-195.

Dyers, C. (2008). "Truncated multilingualism or language shift? An examination of language use in intimate domains in a new non-racial working class township in South Africa." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 29(2): 110-126.

Ayeomoni, M. O. (2006). "Code-switching and code-mixing: Style of language use in childhood in Yoruba speech community." Nordic Journal of African Studies 15(1): 90-99.

Sohail, R. and N. A. Malik (2014). "CO-RELATIONAL STUDY OF THE EXTENT OF INTRINSIC/EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION TO CODE SWITCHING ON FACEBOOK." European Scientific Journal 10(29).