Hypothalamus is a structure of the diencephalon of the brain which is located below the thalamus and forms the floor of the third ventricle. It comprises a large number of functionally vital nuclei and fibre tracts, supraoptic and paraventricular are the two key nuclei. Hypothalamus also connected to the pea-shaped gland by the funnel-shaped infundibulum stalk called pituitary gland. The pituitary gland has two major lobes, anterior and posterior pituitary. The posterior pituitary is not a true endocrine gland that produces hormones as it only stores the hormones. It is a part of the brain which is made up of a large number of axon terminals whose cell body is situated in the supraoptic or paraventricular nuclei. The supraoptic neurons produce antidiuretic hormone and paraventricular neurons release oxytocin hormone and then these hormones stores in the posterior pituitary and release to the blood by arriving of the action potential. The anterior pituitary lobe also produces a number of hormones.
Hypothalamus maintain homeostasis by regulating body temperature, water balance, sleep, appetite and emotions such as fear and pleasure