IntroduçãoHistoricamente passamos já por três revoluções industriais ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems”

IntroduçãoHistoricamente passamos já por três revoluções industriais ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/02698599708573549”, “ISBN” : “9781605581415”, “ISSN” : “02698595”, “PMID” : “10129720”, “abstract” : “The timing of birth-related events may influence neonatal outcome and is often pivotal in medicolegal cases. This prospective observational study determined the variation in displayed time on timepieces in a regional maternity unit which could result in inaccuracies of time documentation. The mean (95%CI) difference between time displayed and true time was +5sec (u00b12min 4sec) for delivery room clocks and +1m 8s (u00b17m 12s) for resuscitation room clocks. The maximum discrepancy between delivery room and resuscitation room clocks was 7m 52s. The abilities of staff to estimate the duration of time passed was also assessed. The mean (95%CI) five-minute estimate was 4m 52s (u00b13m 12s). These disparities could have considerable medicolegal significance, and should be taken into consideration in risk management studies. Maternity units should move towards synchronising all timepieces. Meanwhile, statements about the precise timing of events should be regarded with suspicion.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Freeman”, “given” : “Chris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Louu00e7u00e3”, “given” : “Francisco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Studies in the Philosophy of Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2002” }, “title” : “As time goes by: From the Insdustrial Revolutions to the Information Revolution”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9a1fa9ac-6ccb-41e8-bb0f-d80e4db09c17” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Freeman and Louu00e7u00e3, 2002)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Freeman e Louu00e7u00e3, 2002)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Freeman and Louu00e7u00e3, 2002)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Freeman and Louu00e7u00e3, 2002)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Freeman e Louçã, 2001). A primeira marcada pela mecanização da energia natural (como exemplo temos a máquina a vapor) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “T.S.Ashton”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Oxford University Press”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1997” }, “title” : “The Industrial Revolution”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3bd40357-6533-44cc-a710-c056ec2559e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(T.S.Ashton, 1997)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ashton, 1997)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(T.S.Ashton, 1997)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(T.S.Ashton, 1997)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ashton, 1997). A segunda caraterizada pela produção em massa e pelas linhas de montagem com recurso à energia elétrica e ao petróleo ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/JCM-04-2015-1399”, “ISBN” : “0920130437”, “ISSN” : “00224359”, “PMID” : “1650590391”, “abstract” : “Purpose u2013 This paper aims to trace the history, application areas and users of Classical Analytics and Big Data Analytics. Design/methodology/approach u2013 The paper discusses different types of Classical and Big Data Analytical techniques and application areas from the early days to present day. Findings u2013 Businesses can benefit from a deeper understanding of Classical and Big Data Analytics to make better and more informed decisions. Originality/value u2013 This is a historical perspective from the early days of analytics to present day use of analytics.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mokyr”, “given” : “Joel”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “In V. Castronono (Ed.), Storiadell’economia Mondiale. Rome: Laterza.”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “August 1998”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1998” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d667eb32-806c-43c3-8ed2-354765c8831e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mokyr, 1998)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mokyr, 1998)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mokyr, 1998)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mokyr, 1998). E por último, a terceira revolução industrial, aquela que tem início no final do séc. XX, e implementa o uso de eletrónica e tecnologias de Informação na automação da produção com base na alta tecnologia ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1017/CBO9781139236706”, “ISBN” : “9781139236706”, “abstract” : “Nine papers, previously presented at a colloquium held in November 2006, explore the impact of information technology on global business. Papers discuss technological revolutions and the evolution of industrial structures–assessing the impact of new technologies on the size, pattern of growth, and boundaries of firms; the long-run dynamics of big firms–the one hundred largest employers from the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Japan, 1907-2002; the long-term evolution of the knowledge boundaries of firms–supply and demand perspectives; organizing the electronic century; aircraft and the third industrial revolution; aluminum and the third industrial revolution; the role of the state in the third industrial revolution–continuity and change; the historical origins of the U.S. stock market’s appetite for novelty; and labor in the third industrial revolution–a tentative synthesis. Dosi is Professor of Economics at the Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies and Codirector of the task forces on Industrial Policy and on Intellectual Property Rights with the Initiative for Policy Dialogue at Columbia University. Galambos is Professor of History and Codirector of the Institute of Applied Economics, Global Health, and the Study of Business Enterprise at Johns Hopkins University. Index.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dosi”, “given” : “Giovanni”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Galambos”, “given” : “Louis”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2010”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-343”, “title” : “The Third Industrial Revolution in Global Business”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f5f076b0-444f-4775-8d86-83457cb2de14” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dosi and Galambos, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Dosi e Galambos, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dosi and Galambos, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dosi and Galambos, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dosi e Galambos, 2013). A revolução industrial tem inserido complexidade, autonomia e sustentabilidade no processo produtivo tendo por vista um incremento da produtividade industrial ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.promfg.2018.02.034”, “ISBN” : “9404601624”, “ISSN” : “23519789”, “abstract” : “Digitization and intelligentization of manufacturing process is the need for today’s industry. The manufacturing industries are currently changing from mass production to customized production. The rapid advancements in manufacturing technologies and applications in the industries help in increasing productivity. The term Industry 4.0 stands for the fourth industrial revolution which is defined as a new level of organization and control over the entire value chain of the life cycle of products; it is geared towards increasingly individualized customer requirements. Industry 4.0 is still visionary but a realistic concept which includes Internet of Things, Industrial Internet, Smart Manufacturing and Cloud based Manufacturing. Industry 4.0 concerns the strict integration of human in the manufacturing process so as to have continuous improvement and focus on value adding activities and avoiding wastes. 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É neste contexto que se insere o termo “industrie 4.0”, “industry 4.0” ou “industria 4.0”. O termo indústria 4.0 surge, pela primeira vez, com destaque internacional aquando da sua apresentação na Hannover Messe Fair na Alemanha fruto da proposta de três engenheiros alemães “industrie 4.0” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3991/ijim.v11i5.7072”, “ISSN” : “1865-7923”, “abstract” : “<p>&lt;p class=”0abstract”&gt;Industry 4.0 is a strategic initiative recently introduced by the German government. The goal of the initiative is transformation of industrial manufacturing through digitalization and exploitation of potentials of new technologies. An Industry 4.0 production system is thus flexible and enables individualized and customized products. The aim of this paper is to present and facilitate an understanding of Industry 4.0 concepts, its drivers, enablers, goals and limitations. Building blocks are described and smart factory concept is presented. A Reference Architecture Model RAMI4.0 and role of standardization in future implementation of Industry 4.0 concept are addressed. The current status of Industry 4.0 readiness of the German companies is presented and commented. 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Apresentam a terminologia que, acreditam, designa uma nova revolução iminente – a quarta, uma crença tida por muito como visionária mas realista ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.promfg.2018.02.034”, “ISBN” : “9404601624”, “ISSN” : “23519789”, “abstract” : “Digitization and intelligentization of manufacturing process is the need for today’s industry. The manufacturing industries are currently changing from mass production to customized production. The rapid advancements in manufacturing technologies and applications in the industries help in increasing productivity. The term Industry 4.0 stands for the fourth industrial revolution which is defined as a new level of organization and control over the entire value chain of the life cycle of products; it is geared towards increasingly individualized customer requirements. 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Finally the major research issues remaining open for academic communities are analyzed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzori”, “given” : “Luigi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Iera”, “given” : “Antonio”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Morabito”, “given” : “Giocomo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Computer Networks”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “15”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “358-366”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “The Internet of Things: A survey”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “54” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=97c4846e-3a80-4baf-8bf2-2d9e040b2e61” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Atzori, Iera and Morabito, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Atzori et al. 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Atzori, Iera and Morabito, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Atzori, Iera and Morabito, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Atzori et al. 2010).

Podemos notar, mesmo através de pequenas e rápidas pesquisas, que a importância do tema “indústria 4.0” ao nível internacional é extremamente relevante. Este assunto apresenta-se como um tema emergente e em expansão em múltiplas áreas. Desta fora, a principal pergunta como mote da pesquisa é: Qual a relevância, as raízes, a evolução e a dinâmica da literatura produzida a propósito do conceito “indústria 4.0” na área económica e social?
O objetivo deste estudo é analisar e compreender a atividade académica já existente no campo. Pretende-se perceber qual a importância, o interesse e a qualidade da literatura existente com o uso de indicadores e análises bibliométricas por forma a observar, formular e quantificar os comportamentos da comunicação escrita no assunto. No presente caso o foco pretendido é delineado pelas ciências sociais e humanas pelo que as limitações irão nessa direção.

Esta dissertação está organizada da seguinte forma. O Capítulo 2 apresentará uma análise de literatura pertinente para o estudo em questão permitindo já uma exposição do estado do tema na atualidade. O Capítulo 3 apresentará a metodologia utilizada e o tratamento aplicado aos dados obtidos. No Capítulo 4 proceder-se-á à análise dos resultados após o tratamento. Por fim, no Capítulo 5 serão apresentadas as principais conclusões do estudo e propostas para futuras pesquisas, bem como as limitações inerentes ao estudo e análise aqui aplicada.

Revisão de literaturaOrigem e explicação do termo “industry 4.0″O termo ‘industrie 4.0’ surge pela primeira vez na Hannover Messe Fair em 2011 na Alemanha ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Forum”, “given” : “Industry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “56-58”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c4793fe-7c64-4e51-be14-e1b9d71afc6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Drath e Horch, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Drath e Horch, 2014). Termo esse que pretende antever uma nova revolução industrial, a quarta, que ocupa a nossa história num “agora” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1109/HICSS.2016.488”, “ISBN” : “9780769556703”, “ISSN” : “15301605”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Although Industrie 4.0 is currently a top priority for many companies, research centers, and universities, a generally accepted definition of the term does not exist. As a result, discussing the topic on an academic level is difficult, and so is implementing Industrie 4.0 scenarios. Based on a literature review, the paper provides a definition of Industrie 4.0 and identifies six design principles for its implementation: interoperability, virtualization, decentralization, real-time capability, service orientation, and modularity. Taking into account these principles, academics may be enabled to further investigate on the topic, while practitioners may find assistance in implementing appropriate scenarios”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hermann”, “given” : “Mario”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pentek”, “given” : “Tobias”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Otto”, “given” : “Boris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “3928-3937”, “title” : “Design principles for industrie 4.0 scenarios”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2016-March” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4447c65c-bed0-4569-8de5-fffe034f628b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Hermann et al., 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hermann et al., 2016) e que tem por objetivo melhorar os sistemas de produção, as cadeias de valores e os modelos de negócio na indústria ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1515/auto-2015-0068”, “ISBN” : “0178-2312”, “ISSN” : “01782312”, “PMID” : “20961315”, “abstract” : “Industrie 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution, is a collective term embracing a number of contemporary automation, data exchange and manufacturing technologies. It had been defined as ‘a collective term for technologies and concepts of value chain organization’ which draws together Cyber-Physical Systems, the Internet of Things and the Internet of Services. Industrie 4.0 facilitates the vision and execution of a “Smart Factory”. Within the modular structured Smart Factories of Industry 4.0, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralized decisions. Over the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and with humans in real time, and via the Internet of Services, both internal and cross-organizational services are offered and utilized by participants of the value chain.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Beyerer”, “given” : “Ju00fcrgen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jasperneite”, “given” : “Ju00fcrgen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sauer”, “given” : “Olaf”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “At-Automatisierungstechnik”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “10”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “751-752”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “63” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ae49257-dcc5-4a7b-9e62-cde2d6ebdffd” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Beyerer, Jasperneite and Sauer, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Beyerer et al., 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Beyerer, Jasperneite and Sauer, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Beyerer, Jasperneite and Sauer, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Beyerer et al., 2015). No relatório final do grupo de trabalho ‘Industrie 4.0’ formulam-no como sendo “melhorias fundamentais nos processos industriais envolvidos na fabricação, na engenharia, no uso de materiais, na cadeia de fornecimento e no ciclo de vida de gestão” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.13140/RG.2.1.1205.8966”, “ISBN” : “9783831644933”, “ISSN” : “2405-8963”, “abstract” : “Germany has one of the most competitive manufacturing industries in the world and is a global leader in the manufacturing equipment sector. This is in no small measure due to Germanyu2019s specialisation in research, development and production of innovative manufacturing technologies and the management of complex industrial processes. Germanyu2019s strong machinery and plant manufacturing industry, its globally significant level of IT competences and its know-how in embedded systems and automation engineering mean that it is extremely well placed to develop its position as a leader in the manufacturing engineering industry. Germany is thus uniquely positioned to tap into the potential of a new type of industrialisation: Industrie 4.0.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes”, “given” : “Helbig”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Final report of the Industrie 4.0 WG”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “82”, “title” : “Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0fae6ad6-3574-4b75-ac9d-7b8ff7fc764d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes, 2013)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Kagermann et al., 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kagermann et al., 2013). São apresentados sistemas de produção futuros onde uma produção individualizada e altas condições de flexibilidade são caraterísticas inerentes num processo de negócio, e onde clientes e comerciais são diretamente envolvidos dando espaço a um controle e a uma otimização das operações efetuadas pelas empresas ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1515/auto-2015-0068”, “ISBN” : “0178-2312”, “ISSN” : “01782312”, “PMID” : “20961315”, “abstract” : “Industrie 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution, is a collective term embracing a number of contemporary automation, data exchange and manufacturing technologies. It had been defined as ‘a collective term for technologies and concepts of value chain organization’ which draws together Cyber-Physical Systems, the Internet of Things and the Internet of Services. Industrie 4.0 facilitates the vision and execution of a “Smart Factory”. Within the modular structured Smart Factories of Industry 4.0, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralized decisions. Over the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and with humans in real time, and via the Internet of Services, both internal and cross-organizational services are offered and utilized by participants of the value chain.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Beyerer”, “given” : “Ju00fcrgen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jasperneite”, “given” : “Ju00fcrgen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sauer”, “given” : “Olaf”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “At-Automatisierungstechnik”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “10”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “751-752”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “63” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ae49257-dcc5-4a7b-9e62-cde2d6ebdffd” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Beyerer, Jasperneite and Sauer, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Beyerer et al. , 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Beyerer, Jasperneite and Sauer, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Beyerer, Jasperneite and Sauer, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Beyerer et al. , 2015).
Desde 2011 o termo tem vindo a ser extremamente debatido começando pelo público alemão e mais tarde, progressivamente, veio a ganhar uma dimensão global ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s11569-016-0280-3”, “ISSN” : “1871-4757”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pfeiffer”, “given” : “Sabine”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “NanoEthics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017”, “4”, “25” }, “page” : “107-121”, “title” : “The Vision of u201cIndustrie 4.0u201d in the Makingu2014a Case of Future Told, Tamed, and Traded”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=24f2c2c8-ce20-3f55-9db4-a17aef2842cc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pfeiffer, 2017). “Industrie 4.0” é proposto originalmente por três engenheiros alemães, Henning Kagermann (físico), Wolfgang Wahlster (professor de inteligência artificial) e Wolf. Dieter Lukas (físico e sénior do Ministério Federal Alemão da Educação e Investigação – German Federal Ministry of Education and Research). Engenheiros esses que acabaram por deixar de ser a força essencial que proporciona e segue alimentando o debate, pois, a sua visão era a de angariar fundos visando atingir certos objetivos técnicos. Por esta razão, a Alemanha é considerada o berço desta nova revolução industrial não surpreendendo já que o país é um dos mais competitivos na indústria de manufatura e um líder global neste setor ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3991/ijim.v11i5.7072”, “ISSN” : “1865-7923”, “abstract” : “<p>&lt;p class=”0abstract”&gt;Industry 4.0 is a strategic initiative recently introduced by the German government. The goal of the initiative is transformation of industrial manufacturing through digitalization and exploitation of potentials of new technologies. An Industry 4.0 production system is thus flexible and enables individualized and customized products. The aim of this paper is to present and facilitate an understanding of Industry 4.0 concepts, its drivers, enablers, goals and limitations. Building blocks are described and smart factory concept is presented. A Reference Architecture Model RAMI4.0 and role of standardization in future implementation of Industry 4.0 concept are addressed. The current status of Industry 4.0 readiness of the German companies is presented and commented. Finally it is discussed if Industry 4.0 is really a disruptive concept or simply a natural incremental development of industrial production systems.&lt;/p&gt;</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rojko”, “given” : “Andreja”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “77”, “title” : “Industry 4.0 Concept: Background and Overview”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3aa3ace9-384d-420d-9c20-d451fd0281d1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rojko, 2017). Assim sendo, acaba por ser uma iniciativa estratégica do governo alemão por forma a garantir e sustentar esta posição sem esquecer que se trata de uma consequência natural do avanço tecnológico e digitalização, bem como da carência de explorações para aumento de lucro na industria já que quase se esgotaram a possibilidades existentes ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3991/ijim.v11i5.7072”, “ISSN” : “1865-7923”, “abstract” : “<p>&lt;p class=”0abstract”&gt;Industry 4.0 is a strategic initiative recently introduced by the German government. The goal of the initiative is transformation of industrial manufacturing through digitalization and exploitation of potentials of new technologies. An Industry 4.0 production system is thus flexible and enables individualized and customized products. The aim of this paper is to present and facilitate an understanding of Industry 4.0 concepts, its drivers, enablers, goals and limitations. Building blocks are described and smart factory concept is presented. A Reference Architecture Model RAMI4.0 and role of standardization in future implementation of Industry 4.0 concept are addressed. The current status of Industry 4.0 readiness of the German companies is presented and commented. Finally it is discussed if Industry 4.0 is really a disruptive concept or simply a natural incremental development of industrial production systems.&lt;/p&gt;</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rojko”, “given” : “Andreja”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “77”, “title” : “Industry 4.0 Concept: Background and Overview”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3aa3ace9-384d-420d-9c20-d451fd0281d1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rojko, 2017).
O estado alemão, no seu site de “Germany Trade & Invest” (GTAI) descreve a “industrie 4.0″como sendo uma combinação entre métodos de produção e tecnologia de informação e comunicação. Tomam a digitalização da economia e da sociedade como um dado assumido e, fazendo disso uma força, acreditam e apostam na mudança futura do trabalho e da fabricação. A sua base tecnológica é fornecida por sistemas inteligentes onde pessoas, máquinas, equipamentos e sistemas lógicos comunicam e cooperam entre si. O projeto “INDUSTRIE 4.0” é considerado uma das maiores oportunidades alemãs, no que diz respeito à indústria, e por isso é parte da sua estratégia de alta tecnologia 2020.

A ideia pretende conjugar o avanço técnico com uma melhoria na indústria por forma a lidar com os atuais desafios globais ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1155/2016/3159805”, “ISBN” : “1550-1329”, “ISSN” : “15501477”, “abstract” : “With the application of Internet of Things and services to manufacturing, the fourth stage of industrialization, referred to as Industrie 4.0, is believed to be approaching. For Industrie 4.0 to come true, it is essential to implement the horizontal integration of inter-corporation value network, the end-to-end integration of engineering value chain, and the vertical integration of factory inside. In this paper, we focus on the vertical integration to implement flexible and reconfigurable smart factory. We first propose a brief framework that incorporates industrial wireless networks, cloud, and fixed or mobile terminals with smart artifacts such as machines, products, and conveyors. Then, we elaborate the operational mechanism from the perspective of control engineering, that is, the smart artifacts form a self-organized system which is assisted with the feedback and coordination blocks that are implemented on the cloud and based on the big data analytics. In addition, we outline the main technical features and beneficial outcomes and present a detailed design scheme. We conclude that the smart factory of Industrie 4.0 is achievable by extensively applying the existing enabling technologies while actively coping with the technical challenges.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wang”, “given” : “Shiyong”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wan”, “given” : “Jiafu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Di”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhang”, “given” : “Chunhua”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Implementing Smart Factory of Industrie 4.0: An Outlook”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2016” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ac696b0-eec4-4c31-a0e1-48755fa94779” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Wang et al., 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wang et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wang et al., 2016), desafios esses assentes numa competição, também ela global, e uma necessidade de adaptação rápida da produção a cada mudança requerida pelo mercado ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3991/ijim.v11i5.7072”, “ISSN” : “1865-7923”, “abstract” : “<p>&lt;p class=”0abstract”&gt;Industry 4.0 is a strategic initiative recently introduced by the German government. The goal of the initiative is transformation of industrial manufacturing through digitalization and exploitation of potentials of new technologies. An Industry 4.0 production system is thus flexible and enables individualized and customized products. The aim of this paper is to present and facilitate an understanding of Industry 4.0 concepts, its drivers, enablers, goals and limitations. Building blocks are described and smart factory concept is presented. A Reference Architecture Model RAMI4.0 and role of standardization in future implementation of Industry 4.0 concept are addressed. The current status of Industry 4.0 readiness of the German companies is presented and commented. Finally it is discussed if Industry 4.0 is really a disruptive concept or simply a natural incremental development of industrial production systems.&lt;/p&gt;</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rojko”, “given” : “Andreja”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “77”, “title” : “Industry 4.0 Concept: Background and Overview”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3aa3ace9-384d-420d-9c20-d451fd0281d1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rojko, 2017).

O discurso e a discussão em torno do tema atingem um pico em 2016 quando o Fórum Económico Mundial (World Economic Forum, WEF), em Davos, apresenta o tema “Mastering The Fourth Industrial Revolution” e faz com que um debate iniciado pela preocupação com as novas tecnologias da fabricação se expanda, posteriormente, até distintas esferas da sociedade ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00207543.2017.1308576”, “ISBN” : “1359-7345”, “ISSN” : “1366588X”, “PMID” : “24239943”, “abstract” : “Over the last few years, the fourth industrial revolution has attracted more and more attentions all around the world. In the current literature, there is still a lack of efforts to systematically review the state of the art of this new industrial revolution wave. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating the academic progresses in Industry 4.0. A systematic literature review was carried out to analyse the academic articles within the Industry 4.0 topic that were published online until the end of June 2016. In this paper, the obtained results from both the general data analysis of included papers (e.g. relevant journals, their subject areas and categories, conferences, keywords) and the specific data analysis corresponding to four research sub-questions are illustrated and discussed. These results not only summarise the current research activities (e.g. main research directions, applied standards, employed software and hardware), but also indicate existing deficiencies and potential research directions through proposing a research agenda. Findings of this review can be used as the basis for future research in Industry 4.0 and related topics. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liao”, “given” : “Yongxin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Deschamps”, “given” : “Fernando”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Loures”, “given” : “Eduardo de Freitas Rocha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ramos”, “given” : “Luiz Felipe Pierin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Production Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “3609-3629”, “publisher” : “Taylor & Francis”, “title” : “Past, present and future of Industry 4.0 – a systematic literature review and research agenda proposal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “55” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bcfffff8-ea29-4e71-9a8c-98814e342af9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Liao <i>et al.</i>, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Liao et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Liao et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Liao <i>et al.</i>, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Liao et al., 2017). A terminologia é apresentada por três engenheiros que pretendem relançar a produção industrial para o centro das atenções e acabam por fazer surgir várias discussões em torno da mesma ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s11569-016-0280-3”, “ISSN” : “1871-4757”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pfeiffer”, “given” : “Sabine”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “NanoEthics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017”, “4”, “25” }, “page” : “107-121”, “title” : “The Vision of u201cIndustrie 4.0u201d in the Makingu2014a Case of Future Told, Tamed, and Traded”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=24f2c2c8-ce20-3f55-9db4-a17aef2842cc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pfeiffer, 2017).
Neste ponto é possível perceber, pela prática, percurso e consequências do tema, o impacto que continua a ter a inovação na sociedade e em especial na economia de uma forma extremamente significativa. Descobrimos a ciência como impulsionadora das instituições contemporâneas, e no presente caso compreendemos como a ciência social (ramo ao qual pertence a inovação), a matemática, a física e a engenharia jogam a favor de toda a atualização de software e hardware necessária à chamada 4RI (quarta revolução industrial) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00213624.2005.11506782”, “ISSN” : “0021-3624”, “abstract” : “”Presentan estudios de innovaciu00f3n y analiza los desafu00edos y perspectivas para investigaciu00f3n futuras, seu00f1ala avances recientes y desafu00edos. Aborda la evoluciu00f3n econu00f3mica haciendo uso de la teoru00eda (o post-schumpeteriana) de la misma manera se enfocan en el estudio de la tecnologu00eda y la innovaciu00f3n con base en los estudios de ciencia y tecnologu00eda, asu00ed como abordan literatura de negocios, administraciu00f3n y sociologu00eda. Primero considera por separado diferentes corrientes de la literatura sobre innovaciu00f3n, dividiu00e9ndolas en u201cniveles de anu00e1lisis”” Primero; nivel microeconu00f3mico donde se revisa el nivel organizacional y planteamiento jeru00e1rquicos, la I+D. presentaciu00f3n de 5 configuraciones tu00edpicas organizacionales burocracia profesional-maquina, forma dividida, adhocracia Segundo; La complejidad del proceso innovador a nivel microeconu00f3mico que requiere un enfoque u201csistu00e9micou201d de la actividad innovadora en donde el conocimiento es un recurso econu00f3mico ademu00e1s de ser un proceso social, lo cual permite redes de conocimiento y cooperaciu00f3n entre distintas empresas o sectores de investigaciu00f3n (lo que Porter llamo una agrupaciu00f3n industrial) pero esto promueve el crecimiento localizado que se ve en la actualidad con las industrias colaborativas pero a nivel de su mismo potencia, y revisiu00f3n historica-empirica, solidez de los marcos institucionales y apoyo a la evoluciu00f3n de la nueva industria, se fomenta a la universidad como claustro de contribuciu00f3n de conocimiento y tecnologu00eda ademu00e1s se habla de trabajo educado, un claro ejemplo son las patentes. la tercera secciu00f3n; desafu00edos de estudiar innovaciu00f3n nivel meso. En donde los tu00e9rminos de globalizaciu00f3n afectan el aprendizaje, se mantiene el crecimiento por sectores que son llamados endu00f3genos. La producciu00f3n se debe llevar dentro de la regiu00f3n para luego ser externalizada se considera a lo local como super-fluo aun que para otros sectores u00fanicamente lo regional no es suficiente, la globalizaciu00f3n vuelve y juega un papel criticu00f3 dado que la disponibilidad de conocimiento supone un reto de mayor conocimiento y competitividad, esto radica en una mayor competencia para lo cual las grande empresa han optado por comprar a la mediana y pequeu00f1a empresa considerada competencia Cuarto; Nivel macroeconu00f3mico, y consideraru00e1 los impactos de la innovaciu00f3n en el rendimiento de las economu00edas nacionales a largo plazo enfocando el crecimiento, recuperaciu00f3n, empleo y las regiones (sectores). Entonces, la quinta secciu00f3n seu00f1alaru00e1 los principales desafu00edos comuu2026″, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Castellaci”, “given” : “Fulvio”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Grodal”, “given” : “Stine”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mendonca”, “given” : “Sandro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wibe”, “given” : “Mona”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Economic Issues”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “page” : “91-121”, “title” : “Advances and Challenges in Innovation Studies”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “39” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e87e2317-1f42-45c4-8cc6-5a4399afc1fd” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.techfore.2008.08.003”, “ISBN” : “0040-1625”, “ISSN” : “00401625”, “abstract” : “An overview of how the role of science in relation to innovation has been defined over the past five decades is given, showing a change from a linear to a chain-linked model of interpretation. A third analytical grid, leading to a new model is proposed, summarizing the current research on the nature of economically useful knowledge, the diversity of intervening players in learning and the outcomes of innovation. While the chain-linked view surpassed the linear model by emphasising that science is part of the process but not necessarily the initiating step, we need today to explicitly acknowledge the multi-player dimension of innovation and the wider institutional setting where distinct forms of learning take place. The reason is simple: almost all high added value products embody elements of scientific knowledge. But science is only one of a plurality of other sources of knowledge that induce innovation-based growth. More attention should also be given to understanding markets and organisations. u00a9 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Carau00e7a”, “given” : “Jou00e3o”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lundvall”, “given” : “Bengt u00c5ke”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mendonu00e7a”, “given” : “Sandro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Technological Forecasting and Social Change”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “861-867”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “The changing role of science in the innovation process: From Queen to Cinderella?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “76” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d97196e6-95ca-42c9-9a11-9615356e090b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Castellaci ;i;et al.;/i;, 2005; Carau00e7a, Lundvall and Mendonu00e7a, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Castellaci et al., 2005; Carau00e7a et al., 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Castellaci et al., 2005; Carau00e7a, Lundvall and Mendonu00e7a, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Castellaci ;i;et al.;/i;, 2005; Carau00e7a, Lundvall and Mendonu00e7a, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Castellaci et al., 2005; Caraça et al., 2009).
De acordo com o Dicionário de Oxford inovação significa “fazer mudanças em algo estabelecido, especialmente pela introdução de novos métodos, ideias ou produtos”, enquanto a OCDE na publicação conjunta com a Eurostat do Manual de Oslo ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1787/9789264013100-en”, “ISBN” : “9264013083”, “ISSN” : “9264013083 9789264013087”, “PMID” : “15131292”, “abstract” : “The Oslo Manual is the foremost international source of guidelines for the collection and use of data on innovation activities in industry. This third edition has been updated to take account of the progress made in understanding the innovation process, the experience gained from the previous round of innovation surveys, the extension of the field of investigation to other sectors of industry and the latest revisions of international standard classifications.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “OCDE”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “OCDE and Eurostat”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “number-of-pages” : “166”, “title” : “Oslo Manual – Guidelines for collecting and interpreting innovation data”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “Third edit” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d6f2f4e-9d88-48a9-bea5-eebb5830d072” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(OCDE, 2005)”, “manualFormatting” : “(OCDE, 2005: 48)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(OCDE, 2005)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(OCDE, 2005)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(OCDE, 2005: 48) apresenta:
Inovação como “The implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method inbusiness practices, workplace organisation or external relations.” (OCDE, 2005:46);
Atividades de inovação como “all scientific, technological, organisational, financial and commercial steps which actually, or are intended to, lead to the implementation of innovations” (OCDE, 2005: 47)
E uma empresa inovadora “is one that has implemented an innovation during the period under review” (OCDE, 2005: 47). A OCDE faz ainda distinção entre os principais tipos de inovação: inovação de produtos, inovação de processo, inovação de marketing e inovação organizacional.

Grande atenção é captada já que o tema visa anunciar uma revolução dizendo-a eminente. Assim, pela expetativa de determinado acontecimento no futuro, caímos na hipótese de uma revolução industrial planeada, uma revolução “prevista” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s12599-014-0334-4”, “ISBN” : “0949-0205”, “ISSN” : “18670202”, “PMID” : “1556941973”, “abstract” : “Industry 4.0 will transform the design, manufacture, operation, and service of products and production systems. Connectivity and interaction among parts, machines, and humans will make production systems as much as 30 percent faster and 25 percent more efficient and elevate mass customization to new levels. Transforming”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lasi”, “given” : “Heiner”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fettke”, “given” : “Peter”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kemper”, “given” : “Hans Georg”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Feld”, “given” : “Thomas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hoffmann”, “given” : “Michael”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Business and Information Systems Engineering”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “239-242”, “title” : “Industry 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6e5d5c2f-a921-43fc-826f-67658358da53” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lasi ;i;et al.;/i;, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Lasi et al., 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lasi et al., 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lasi ;i;et al.;/i;, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lasi et al., 2014) que providencia a possibilidade, para o mais variado lote de instituições, de adaptar e moldar ativamente o futuro ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1109/HICSS.2016.488”, “ISBN” : “9780769556703”, “ISSN” : “15301605”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Although Industrie 4.0 is currently a top priority for many companies, research centers, and universities, a generally accepted definition of the term does not exist. As a result, discussing the topic on an academic level is difficult, and so is implementing Industrie 4.0 scenarios. Based on a literature review, the paper provides a definition of Industrie 4.0 and identifies six design principles for its implementation: interoperability, virtualization, decentralization, real-time capability, service orientation, and modularity. Taking into account these principles, academics may be enabled to further investigate on the topic, while practitioners may find assistance in implementing appropriate scenarios”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hermann”, “given” : “Mario”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pentek”, “given” : “Tobias”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Otto”, “given” : “Boris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “3928-3937”, “title” : “Design principles for industrie 4.0 scenarios”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2016-March” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4447c65c-bed0-4569-8de5-fffe034f628b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Hermann et al., 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hermann et al., 2016). As revoluções industriais anteriores são um efeito das mudanças, quer dos métodos de produção quer do trabalho mais do que por motivação de avanços e novidades tecnológicas ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Forum”, “given” : “Industry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “56-58”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c4793fe-7c64-4e51-be14-e1b9d71afc6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Drath e Horch, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Drath e Horch, 2014).
Nos últimos anos a 4RI tornou-se um dos pontos mais frequentemente discutidos nos fóruns, exibições, apresentações e conferências no que diz respeito à fabricação, enquanto, simultaneamente cresce o interesse sobre o assunto por parte dos centros de pesquisa e investigação, universidades e dos seus académicos e empresas que contribuem para este novo estímulo desde as suas experiências laboratoriais ou até mesmo através das suas aplicações industriais ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00207543.2017.1308576”, “ISBN” : “1359-7345”, “ISSN” : “1366588X”, “PMID” : “24239943”, “abstract” : “Over the last few years, the fourth industrial revolution has attracted more and more attentions all around the world. In the current literature, there is still a lack of efforts to systematically review the state of the art of this new industrial revolution wave. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating the academic progresses in Industry 4.0. A systematic literature review was carried out to analyse the academic articles within the Industry 4.0 topic that were published online until the end of June 2016. In this paper, the obtained results from both the general data analysis of included papers (e.g. relevant journals, their subject areas and categories, conferences, keywords) and the specific data analysis corresponding to four research sub-questions are illustrated and discussed. These results not only summarise the current research activities (e.g. main research directions, applied standards, employed software and hardware), but also indicate existing deficiencies and potential research directions through proposing a research agenda. Findings of this review can be used as the basis for future research in Industry 4.0 and related topics. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liao”, “given” : “Yongxin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Deschamps”, “given” : “Fernando”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Loures”, “given” : “Eduardo de Freitas Rocha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ramos”, “given” : “Luiz Felipe Pierin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Production Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “3609-3629”, “publisher” : “Taylor ; Francis”, “title” : “Past, present and future of Industry 4.0 – a systematic literature review and research agenda proposal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “55” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bcfffff8-ea29-4e71-9a8c-98814e342af9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Liao ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Liao et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Liao ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Liao et al., 2017). Facto que é comprovado pela tendência crescente do número de conferências e publicações académicas evidenciando não só a importância atual do tema, como também a sua previsível incessante importância para um futuro próximo. A promessa é apresentada por muitos como promissora onde a adoção e/ou construção de fábricas inteligentes pode resultar numa diminuição muito significativa de custos de produção, logística e gestão, onde para alguns dos casos atinge o valor de 30% ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Nach der Hinleitung zum Thema Industrie 4.0, die unter anderem begru00fcndet, warum dieser Standpunkt wichtig ist und warum er gerade jetzt erscheint, folgt eine Begriffsbestimmung von Industrie 4.0 aus Sicht der produktionstechnischen Forscher. Nach der Definition und historischen Entwicklung der digitalisierten Wertschu00f6pfung werden Nutzen und Potenziale aufgezeigt. Im Anschluss werden in Kapitel 3 die vier wichtigsten Handlungsfelder von den jeweiligen Experten aus der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft fu00fcr Produktionstechnik WGP vertieft behandelt: Cyber-physische Systeme (cps), Cloud- und dienstebasierte Produktionsplattformen, Digitaler Schatten sowie Analytik. Diese Abschnitte folgen alle der gleichen Struktur: Nach der Definition und Darstellung der Entwicklung des jeweiligen Handlungsfelds werden die Potenziale, der Stand der Technik und Forschungsbedarfe, die Migrationspfade fu00fcr den Anwender sowie abschlieu00dfend die Bezu00fcge bzw. Schnittstellen zu den anderen Handlungsfeldern behandelt.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bauernhansel”, “given” : “Thomas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kru00fcger”, “given” : “Ju00f6rg”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Reinhart”, “given” : “Gunther”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schuh”, “given” : “Gu00fcnther”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “WGP-Standpunkte”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “0-49”, “title” : “WGP-Standpunkt Industrie 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0a86a5b9-71ba-463c-9a9d-a1964f5a7b8f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bauernhansel ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Bauernhansel et al., 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bauernhansel et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bauernhansel ;i;et al.;/i;, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bauernhansel et al., 2016).
O anúncio parece ser o terceiro passo das linhas de produção que como resultado tem sistemas de manufatura reconfiguráveis e habilitados para adaptar os seus componentes, quer de hardware quer de software, conseguindo um ajuste à constante mudança de produtos e quantidades exigidas pelo mercado ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.jmsy.2011.01.001”, “ISBN” : “0278-6125”, “ISSN” : “02786125”, “abstract” : “This paper explains the rationale for the development of reconfigurable manufacturing systems, which possess the advantages both of dedicated lines and of flexible systems. The paper defines the core characteristics and design principles of reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) and describes the structure recommended for practical RMS with RMS core characteristics. After that, a rigorous mathematical method is introduced for designing RMS with this recommended structure. An example is provided to demonstrate how this RMS design method is used. The paper concludes with a discussion of reconfigurable assembly systems. u00a9 2011 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Koren”, “given” : “Yoram”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shpitalni”, “given” : “Moshe”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Manufacturing Systems”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “130-141”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Ltd”, “title” : “Design of reconfigurable manufacturing systems”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “29” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c3b2834c-02f1-41a7-ad2e-5d546e9a124e” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “978-1-4673-8058-4”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nayak”, “given” : “Naresh Ganesh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Duerr”, “given” : “Frank”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rothermel”, “given” : “Kurt”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings 2015 5Th International Conference on the Internet of Things (Iot)”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “IoT”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “122-129”, “title” : “Software-defined Environment for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3991d758-c7d0-48e4-951a-afc740d96cbc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Koren and Shpitalni, 2010; Nayak, Duerr and Rothermel, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Koren ; Shpitalni, 2010; Nayak et al., 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Koren and Shpitalni, 2010; Nayak, Duerr and Rothermel, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Koren and Shpitalni, 2010; Nayak, Duerr and Rothermel, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Koren & Shpitalni, 2010; Nayak et al., 2015) por oposição a umas “primeiras linhas de montagem” dedicadas a tarefas específicas e apenas à produção de um produto, ou ainda, por oposição às “segundas linhas de montagem” onde os sistemas passaram a ser programáveis permitindo a produção de produtos distintos mas sem flexibilidade no que toca à capacidade de produção ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/S0167-5419(89)80006-7”, “ISSN” : “01675419”, “abstract” : “The article traces the development of flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). The three subsystems that compose an FMS structurally are described: fabrication, machining and assembly. The complexities and management issues of FMS are also examined.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dhar”, “given” : “U. R.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Engineering management international”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1989” }, “page” : “271-277”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.”, “title” : “Flexible manufacturing systems: major breakthrough in manufacturing management”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=86c1ed53-1ac8-4127-b5b2-d46c02930acb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dhar, 1989)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dhar, 1989)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dhar, 1989)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dhar, 1989).

Contudo, acaba por ser conflituosa a quantidade de definições existentes para a mesma terminologia causando, em alguns momentos, mais confusão que transparência. Dado que não existe uma perceção aceite unanimemente, a discussão do tópico ao nível académico torna-se difícil em paralelo com uma implementação na prática também ela não obvia ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1109/HICSS.2016.488”, “ISBN” : “9780769556703”, “ISSN” : “15301605”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Although Industrie 4.0 is currently a top priority for many companies, research centers, and universities, a generally accepted definition of the term does not exist. As a result, discussing the topic on an academic level is difficult, and so is implementing Industrie 4.0 scenarios. Based on a literature review, the paper provides a definition of Industrie 4.0 and identifies six design principles for its implementation: interoperability, virtualization, decentralization, real-time capability, service orientation, and modularity. Taking into account these principles, academics may be enabled to further investigate on the topic, while practitioners may find assistance in implementing appropriate scenarios”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hermann”, “given” : “Mario”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pentek”, “given” : “Tobias”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Otto”, “given” : “Boris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “3928-3937”, “title” : “Design principles for industrie 4.0 scenarios”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2016-March” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4447c65c-bed0-4569-8de5-fffe034f628b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Hermann et al., 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hermann et al., 2016). Enquanto alguns acreditam ser uma visão acertada outros apresentam-na como uma visão exagerada questionando o potencial por detrás da indústria 4.0 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Forum”, “given” : “Industry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “56-58”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c4793fe-7c64-4e51-be14-e1b9d71afc6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Drath e Horch, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Drath e Horch, 2014). É necessária uma distinção clara entre o efeito real e o efeito especulado, entre um sério discurso e uma “campanha publicitária” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s11569-016-0280-3”, “ISSN” : “1871-4757”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pfeiffer”, “given” : “Sabine”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “NanoEthics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017”, “4”, “25” }, “page” : “107-121”, “title” : “The Vision of u201cIndustrie 4.0u201d in the Makingu2014a Case of Future Told, Tamed, and Traded”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=24f2c2c8-ce20-3f55-9db4-a17aef2842cc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pfeiffer, 2017). Continua a não ser evidente o que constitui esta dita revolução industrial ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1038/nnano.2015.286”, “ISBN” : “1748-3387”, “ISSN” : “17483395”, “PMID” : “26632281”, “abstract” : “considers the challenges of ensuring the responsible development and use of converging technologies.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maynard”, “given” : “Andrew D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Nature Nanotechnology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1005-1006”, “publisher” : “Nature Publishing Group”, “title” : “Navigating the fourth industrial revolution”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “10” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=141e584c-9387-4e44-b550-e731f4e00810” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Maynard, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Maynard, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Maynard, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Maynard, 2015). Para exemplificar a dificuldade por detrás da ideia, um gerente de produção da Audi afirma: “Embora a Indústria 4.0 seja um dos tópicos mais discutidos nos dias de hoje, eu não conseguiria explicar ao meu filho o que é que realmente significa” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1109/HICSS.2016.488”, “ISBN” : “9780769556703”, “ISSN” : “15301605”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Although Industrie 4.0 is currently a top priority for many companies, research centers, and universities, a generally accepted definition of the term does not exist. As a result, discussing the topic on an academic level is difficult, and so is implementing Industrie 4.0 scenarios. Based on a literature review, the paper provides a definition of Industrie 4.0 and identifies six design principles for its implementation: interoperability, virtualization, decentralization, real-time capability, service orientation, and modularity. 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Planos institucionais ou governamentaisO desencadear deste tema não passou indiferente nem às industrias, nem às instituições, nem aos governos ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00207543.2017.1308576”, “ISBN” : “1359-7345”, “ISSN” : “1366588X”, “PMID” : “24239943”, “abstract” : “Over the last few years, the fourth industrial revolution has attracted more and more attentions all around the world. In the current literature, there is still a lack of efforts to systematically review the state of the art of this new industrial revolution wave. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating the academic progresses in Industry 4.0. A systematic literature review was carried out to analyse the academic articles within the Industry 4.0 topic that were published online until the end of June 2016. In this paper, the obtained results from both the general data analysis of included papers (e.g. relevant journals, their subject areas and categories, conferences, keywords) and the specific data analysis corresponding to four research sub-questions are illustrated and discussed. These results not only summarise the current research activities (e.g. main research directions, applied standards, employed software and hardware), but also indicate existing deficiencies and potential research directions through proposing a research agenda. Findings of this review can be used as the basis for future research in Industry 4.0 and related topics. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liao”, “given” : “Yongxin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Deschamps”, “given” : “Fernando”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Loures”, “given” : “Eduardo de Freitas Rocha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ramos”, “given” : “Luiz Felipe Pierin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Production Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “3609-3629”, “publisher” : “Taylor ; Francis”, “title” : “Past, present and future of Industry 4.0 – a systematic literature review and research agenda proposal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “55” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bcfffff8-ea29-4e71-9a8c-98814e342af9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Liao ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Liao et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Liao ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Liao et al., 2017) que acabam por orientar parte das suas forças na recolha dos benefícios da nova onda de revolução industrial ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1109/MCS.1987.1105295”, “ISBN” : “987-0-9927172-0-9”, “ISSN” : “03020797”, “PMID” : “22504786”, “abstract” : “The factory of the future will resemble a very large scale intelligent machine that operates with a highly integrated and well-organized base of knowledge. It must be flexible with regard to changes in demand, technology, economic conditions, and competitive pressures. Above all, it must accurately measure and interpret both what the customer wants and what it can make. The incredible advances that are being made in computer and communications technology and the associated strides in information management, interpretation, and control are opening the door for these advanced manufacturing operations. Software developments that will promote and ensure reliable, coherent communication within and between the many parts of a future factory are the keys to success. It is most gratifying to see the attention that the academic community throughout the country is devoting to this important area. It is timely also to focus our research talents on a field that has not received its share of attention-that is, manufacturing and the environment in which it must operate.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridgway”, “given” : “K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Clegg”, “given” : “C”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Williams”, “given” : “D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The National Metals Technology Centre”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “Evidence paper 29”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “1-40”, “title” : “The Factory of the Future”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0a0b3b6d-4888-43aa-be33-059ad976f7d5” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.apergo.2015.04.018”, “ISBN” : “0003-6870”, “ISSN” : “18729126”, “PMID” : “26154210”, “abstract” : “This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the ‘Global Drivers’ (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US ‘Advanced Manufacturing National Program’ (AMNP)’, the German ‘Industrie 4.0’ plan, the French plan ‘la nouvelle France industrielle’ and the UK Foresight publications on the ‘Future of Manufacturing’. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully effective in this new environment, together with suggestions for the means to acquire and disseminate the knowledge extensions.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Siemieniuch”, “given” : “C. E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sinclair”, “given” : “M. A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Henshaw”, “given” : “M. J.C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Applied Ergonomics”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “104-119”, “title” : “Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “51” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=61039994-9339-4db2-8646-85d6a6c84f82” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ridgway, Clegg and Williams, 2013; Siemieniuch, Sinclair and Henshaw, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ridgway et al., 2013; Siemieniuch et al., 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ridgway, Clegg and Williams, 2013; Siemieniuch, Sinclair and Henshaw, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ridgway, Clegg and Williams, 2013; Siemieniuch, Sinclair and Henshaw, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ridgway et al., 2013; Siemieniuch et al., 2015).

Consequentemente governos por todo o mundo introduzem várias iniciativas nesse sentido ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3991/ijim.v11i5.7072”, “ISSN” : “1865-7923”, “abstract” : “<p>&lt;p class=”0abstract”&gt;Industry 4.0 is a strategic initiative recently introduced by the German government. The goal of the initiative is transformation of industrial manufacturing through digitalization and exploitation of potentials of new technologies. An Industry 4.0 production system is thus flexible and enables individualized and customized products. The aim of this paper is to present and facilitate an understanding of Industry 4.0 concepts, its drivers, enablers, goals and limitations. Building blocks are described and smart factory concept is presented. A Reference Architecture Model RAMI4.0 and role of standardization in future implementation of Industry 4.0 concept are addressed. The current status of Industry 4.0 readiness of the German companies is presented and commented. Finally it is discussed if Industry 4.0 is really a disruptive concept or simply a natural incremental development of industrial production systems.&lt;/p&gt;</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rojko”, “given” : “Andreja”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “77”, “title” : “Industry 4.0 Concept: Background and Overview”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3aa3ace9-384d-420d-9c20-d451fd0281d1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rojko, 2017). A Comissão Europeia lança novos contratos de parcerias publico privadas com a visão de fábricas do futuro ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2777/98640”, “ISBN” : “9789279152276”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “European Commission”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “European Commission”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “1-2”, “title” : “Factories of the Future PPP: Towards Competitive EU Manufacturing”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aca225c1-fe89-4466-bdd5-ffa0fa0e47d3” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(European Commission, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(European Commission, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(European Commission, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(European Commission, 2013), o governo alemão lançou a sua estratégia “High-Tech Strategy 2020 Action Plan” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.13140/RG.2.1.1205.8966”, “ISBN” : “9783831644933”, “ISSN” : “2405-8963”, “abstract” : “Germany has one of the most competitive manufacturing industries in the world and is a global leader in the manufacturing equipment sector. This is in no small measure due to Germanyu2019s specialisation in research, development and production of innovative manufacturing technologies and the management of complex industrial processes. Germanyu2019s strong machinery and plant manufacturing industry, its globally significant level of IT competences and its know-how in embedded systems and automation engineering mean that it is extremely well placed to develop its position as a leader in the manufacturing engineering industry. Germany is thus uniquely positioned to tap into the potential of a new type of industrialisation: Industrie 4.0.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes”, “given” : “Helbig”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Final report of the Industrie 4.0 WG”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “82”, “title” : “Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0fae6ad6-3574-4b75-ac9d-7b8ff7fc764d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes, 2013)”, “manualFormatting” : “( Kagermann et al., 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Kagermann et al., 2013), o governo francês “La Nouvelle France Industrielle” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gouvernement.fr”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Gouvernement.fr”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “The New Face of Industry in France: building the industry of the future”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f15c2e73-5746-469f-ba0a-cc3e4e064ac3” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gouvernement.fr, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Anon., 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gouvernement.fr, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gouvernement.fr, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Anon., 2016) e o governo do Reino Unido apresenta a imagem “Future of Manufacturing” entre muitas outras iniciativas por todo o mundo destacando-se os Estados Unidos da América, Coreia do Sul, Japão, China e Singapura. Paralelamente, surgem também inúmeras iniciativas de planos industriais com destaque para o plano que junta AT&T, Cisco, General Electric, IBM e Intel que assinaram o “Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC)” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00207543.2017.1308576”, “ISBN” : “1359-7345”, “ISSN” : “1366588X”, “PMID” : “24239943”, “abstract” : “Over the last few years, the fourth industrial revolution has attracted more and more attentions all around the world. In the current literature, there is still a lack of efforts to systematically review the state of the art of this new industrial revolution wave. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating the academic progresses in Industry 4.0. A systematic literature review was carried out to analyse the academic articles within the Industry 4.0 topic that were published online until the end of June 2016. 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ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liao”, “given” : “Yongxin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Deschamps”, “given” : “Fernando”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Loures”, “given” : “Eduardo de Freitas Rocha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ramos”, “given” : “Luiz Felipe Pierin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Production Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “3609-3629”, “publisher” : “Taylor & Francis”, “title” : “Past, present and future of Industry 4.0 – a systematic literature review and research agenda proposal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “55” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bcfffff8-ea29-4e71-9a8c-98814e342af9” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781449365875”, “abstract” : “The world is on the threshold of a new era of innovation and change with the rise of the Industrial Internet. It is taking place through the convergence of the global industrial system with the power of advanced computing, analytics, low-cost sensing and new levels of connectivity permitted by the Internet. The deeper meshing of the digital world with the world of machines holds the potential to bring about profound transformation to global industry, and in turn to many aspects of daily life, including the way many of us do our jobs. These innovations promise to bring greater speed and efficiency to industries as diverse as aviation, rail transportation, power generation, oil and gas development, and health care delivery. It holds the promise of stronger economic growth, better and more jobs and rising living standards, whether in the US or in China, in a megacity in Africa or in a rural area in Kazakhstan.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Evans”, “given” : “Peter C”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Annunziata”, “given” : “Marco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “General Electric”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “37”, “title” : “Industrial Internet: Pushing the Boundaries of Minds and Machines”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1ebbe928-8819-4f6f-a087-a16e4b3d86c5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Evans and Annunziata, 2012; Liao <i>et al.</i>, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Evans e Annunziata, 2012; Liao et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Evans and Annunziata, 2012; Liao et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Evans and Annunziata, 2012; Liao <i>et al.</i>, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Evans e Annunziata, 2012; Liao et al., 2017).

Governo PortuguêsNo que diz respeito ao caso português a iniciativa governamental surge com o nome “Portugal i4.0” ou ainda “i4.0: Indústria 4.0 – Economia Digital” introduzida pelo Ministério da Economia naquela que é a Estratégia Nacional para a Digitalização da Economia. Neste sentido em 2017 foi lançado pelo Instituto de Apoio às Pequenas e Médias Empresas e à Inovação (IAPMEI) o “Guia de Informação Indústria 4.0 Sistemas de Incentivos à Economia Digital”ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “IAPMEI”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Portugal 2020”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Uniu00e3o Europeia”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “i4.0: Indu00fastria 4.0: Sistemas de incentivos u00e0 economia digital”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4a4b57af-bc7c-4246-95ba-54475b8f4349” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(IAPMEI, Portugal 2020 and Uniu00e3o Europeia, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(IAPMEI, Portugal 2020 e Uniu00e3o Europeia, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(IAPMEI, Portugal 2020 and Uniu00e3o Europeia, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(IAPMEI, Portugal 2020 and Uniu00e3o Europeia, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(IAPMEI, Portugal 2020 e União Europeia, 2017) apoiado pelo Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER) através do acordo de parceria existente entre Portugal e a Comissão Europeia atuante através de cinco Fundos Europeus Estruturais e de Investimento com especial ênfase em políticas de desenvolvimento social, económico e territorial, denominado “Portugal 2020”.

O IAPMEI – que tem por visão a parceria estratégica com pequenas e médias empresas, os seus empresários e os seus empreendedores, com foco na inovação e no crescimento – apresenta um conjunto de iniciativas, medidas e propostas que se apresentam como assentes em três objetivos centrais: 1. “acelerar a adoção de i4.0 pelo tecido empresarial português”; 2. “promover os fornecedores tecnológicos portugueses como players i4.0”; e por fim 3. “tornar Portugal um polo atrativo para o investimento em i.4.0”. Na prática distribuem a atenção em três campos de atuação distintos sendo eles Inovação e Desenvolvimento, Inovação Produtiva e Economia Digital. Todo o trabalho apresentado e proposto é fruto da participação de vários empresários e instituições portuguesas relevantes a operar no setor automóvel, moda e retalho, agroalimentar e ainda no turismo, selecionados segundo a sua importância na economia nacional, pertinência no contexto de pequenas e médias empresas e suscetibilidade à transformação digital.

Condutores da “indústria 4.0”
A indústria apresentada para a 4RI prevê uma fábrica, e posteriormente uma indústria, onde os componentes, os produtos, e as entidades estão interconectados e podem negociar entre si e para tal recorrem a diferentes aplicações e propostas tecnológicas mais recentes ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Forum”, “given” : “Industry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “56-58”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c4793fe-7c64-4e51-be14-e1b9d71afc6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Drath e Horch, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Drath e Horch, 2014). Acontece assim, inúmeras vezes, uma confusão ou fusão entre o termo “indústria 4.0” e as tecnologias que possibilitam a sua criação, ou seja, acaba por existir na prática dificuldade em distinguir os condutores e aqueles que viabilizam o processo revolucionário da própria revolução ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s11769-017-0890-x”, “ISBN” : “10020063”, “ISSN” : “1993064X”, “abstract” : “The world is marching into a new development period when the digital technology, physical technology, and biological tech-nology have achieved an unprecedented development respectively in their own fields, and at the same time their applications are con-verging greatly. These are the three major technological drivers for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This paper discusses the specific technology niches of each kind technological driver behind the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and then evaluates impacts of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on global industrial, economic, and social development. At last this paper proposes possible measures and policies for both firms and governments to cope with the changes brought by the Fourth Industrial Revolution.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Guoping”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hou”, “given” : “Yun”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wu”, “given” : “Aizhi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Chinese Geographical Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “626-637”, “title” : “Fourth Industrial Revolution: technological drivers, impacts and coping methods”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “27” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a0254b76-84d0-4dad-afa3-ef9e81ff083b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Li, Hou and Wu, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Li et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Li, Hou and Wu, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Li, Hou and Wu, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Li et al., 2017).

A chamada 4RI é então possível através de tecnologia digital, sendo esta a principal força motriz ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s11769-017-0890-x”, “ISBN” : “10020063”, “ISSN” : “1993064X”, “abstract” : “The world is marching into a new development period when the digital technology, physical technology, and biological tech-nology have achieved an unprecedented development respectively in their own fields, and at the same time their applications are con-verging greatly. These are the three major technological drivers for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This paper discusses the specific technology niches of each kind technological driver behind the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and then evaluates impacts of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on global industrial, economic, and social development. At last this paper proposes possible measures and policies for both firms and governments to cope with the changes brought by the Fourth Industrial Revolution.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Guoping”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hou”, “given” : “Yun”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wu”, “given” : “Aizhi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Chinese Geographical Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “626-637”, “title” : “Fourth Industrial Revolution: technological drivers, impacts and coping methods”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “27” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a0254b76-84d0-4dad-afa3-ef9e81ff083b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Li, Hou and Wu, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Li et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Li, Hou and Wu, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Li, Hou and Wu, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Li et al., 2017), essencialmente manifestada em aspetos e aplicações como são os sistemas ciber-físicos (Cyber-Physical Sistem – CPS) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1109/JSYST.2014.2322503”, “ISBN” : “1932-8184 VO – PP”, “ISSN” : “1932-8184”, “abstract” : “Cyberphysical systems (CPSs) are new class of engineered systems that offer close interaction between cyber and physical components. The field of CPS has been identified as a key area of research, and CPSs are expected to play a major role in the design and development of future systems. In this paper, we survey recent advancements made in the development and applications of CPSs. We classify the existing research work based on their characteristics and identify the future challenges. We also discuss the examples of prototypes of CPSs. The aim of this survey is to enable researchers and system designers to get insights into the working and applications of CPSs and motivate them to propose novel solutions for making wide-scale adoption of CPS a tangible reality.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Khaitan”, “given” : “S K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “McCalley”, “given” : “J D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Systems Journal, IEEE”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “99”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “1-16”, “title” : “Design Techniques and Applications of Cyberphysical Systems: A Survey”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “PP” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4e731cf1-a732-4566-9431-e9b38712d189” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Khaitan and McCalley, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Khaitan e McCalley, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Khaitan and McCalley, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Khaitan and McCalley, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Khaitan e McCalley, 2014) ou a Internet Industrial (II) e a Internet das coisas (Internet of Things – IoT) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.comnet.2010.05.010”, “ISBN” : “1951-6851”, “ISSN” : “1389-1286”, “PMID” : “18926558”, “abstract” : “This paper studies the state-of-art of Internet of Things (IoT). By enabling new forms of communication between people and things, and between things themselves, IoT would add a new dimension to the world of information and communication just as Internet once did. In this paper, IoT definitions from different perspective in academic communities are described and compared. The main enabling technologies in IoT are summarized such like RFID systems, sensor networks, and intelligence in smart objects, etc. The effects of their potential applications are reviewed. Finally the major research issues remaining open for academic communities are analyzed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Atzori”, “given” : “Luigi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Iera”, “given” : “Antonio”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Morabito”, “given” : “Giocomo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Computer Networks”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “15”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “358-366”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “The Internet of Things: A survey”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “54” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=97c4846e-3a80-4baf-8bf2-2d9e040b2e61” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Atzori, Iera and Morabito, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Atzori et al. 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Atzori, Iera and Morabito, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Atzori, Iera and Morabito, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Atzori et al. 2010). Os sistemas de controlo descentralizados e a conetividade avançada recolhem e trocam informação em tempo real ganhando a capacidade de identificar, localizar, rastrear, motorizar e otimizar o processo ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3991/ijim.v11i5.7072”, “ISSN” : “1865-7923”, “abstract” : “<p>&lt;p class=”0abstract”&gt;Industry 4.0 is a strategic initiative recently introduced by the German government. The goal of the initiative is transformation of industrial manufacturing through digitalization and exploitation of potentials of new technologies. An Industry 4.0 production system is thus flexible and enables individualized and customized products. The aim of this paper is to present and facilitate an understanding of Industry 4.0 concepts, its drivers, enablers, goals and limitations. Building blocks are described and smart factory concept is presented. A Reference Architecture Model RAMI4.0 and role of standardization in future implementation of Industry 4.0 concept are addressed. The current status of Industry 4.0 readiness of the German companies is presented and commented. Finally it is discussed if Industry 4.0 is really a disruptive concept or simply a natural incremental development of industrial production systems.&lt;/p&gt;</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rojko”, “given” : “Andreja”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “77”, “title” : “Industry 4.0 Concept: Background and Overview”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3aa3ace9-384d-420d-9c20-d451fd0281d1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rojko, 2017). O material combina com o digital introduzindo o máximo número possível de elementos que estão envolvidos no processo de produção ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s11569-016-0280-3”, “ISSN” : “1871-4757”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pfeiffer”, “given” : “Sabine”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “NanoEthics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017”, “4”, “25” }, “page” : “107-121”, “title” : “The Vision of u201cIndustrie 4.0u201d in the Makingu2014a Case of Future Told, Tamed, and Traded”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=24f2c2c8-ce20-3f55-9db4-a17aef2842cc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pfeiffer, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pfeiffer, 2017). Desta forma, os avanços tecnológicos contínuos sustentam a industrialização global ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00207543.2017.1308576”, “ISBN” : “1359-7345”, “ISSN” : “1366588X”, “PMID” : “24239943”, “abstract” : “Over the last few years, the fourth industrial revolution has attracted more and more attentions all around the world. In the current literature, there is still a lack of efforts to systematically review the state of the art of this new industrial revolution wave. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating the academic progresses in Industry 4.0. A systematic literature review was carried out to analyse the academic articles within the Industry 4.0 topic that were published online until the end of June 2016. In this paper, the obtained results from both the general data analysis of included papers (e.g. relevant journals, their subject areas and categories, conferences, keywords) and the specific data analysis corresponding to four research sub-questions are illustrated and discussed. These results not only summarise the current research activities (e.g. main research directions, applied standards, employed software and hardware), but also indicate existing deficiencies and potential research directions through proposing a research agenda. Findings of this review can be used as the basis for future research in Industry 4.0 and related topics. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liao”, “given” : “Yongxin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Deschamps”, “given” : “Fernando”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Loures”, “given” : “Eduardo de Freitas Rocha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ramos”, “given” : “Luiz Felipe Pierin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Production Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “3609-3629”, “publisher” : “Taylor & Francis”, “title” : “Past, present and future of Industry 4.0 – a systematic literature review and research agenda proposal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “55” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bcfffff8-ea29-4e71-9a8c-98814e342af9” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00207543.2011.648278”, “ISBN” : “0020-7543”, “ISSN” : “00207543”, “abstract” : “This paper reports evidence from a survey, aimed at testing whether and how Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), which enable the adoption of product-service systems, can contribute to value creation. This analysis builds on previous contributions, according to which companies that are enriching their product offering through value-added services (the so-called servitisation strategy) often report lower levels of profitability, owing to the poor performance of their operating process. A wide stream of research claims that companies that invest in ICTs can enjoy valuable outcomes, since the adoption of such technologies results in processes that are more efficient and more responsive. Our hypothesis concerns the possibility of leveraging ICTs at operating process level so as to pursue a servitisation strategy. The in-field analysis presented in this paper concerns a sample of 109 companies located in Italy; data collected through the survey have been analysed using the structural equation modelling approach. The evidence presented demonstrates that ICTs can have a relevant impact on value creation because they lead to superior responsiveness of operating processes and to sound improvements in the product offering. In particular, companies that are able to embed such superior responsiveness into their product offering can further boost value creation. u00a9 2013 Taylor & Francis.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Belvedere”, “given” : “Valeria”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Grando”, “given” : “Alberto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bielli”, “given” : “Paola”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Production Research”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “410-426”, “title” : “A quantitative investigation of the role of Information and Communication Technologies in the implementation of a product-service system”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “51” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3b0e45bd-c7f7-4623-b602-6545827d1ebd” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Belvedere, Grando and Bielli, 2013; Liao <i>et al.</i>, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Belvedere et al., 2013; Liao et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Belvedere, Grando and Bielli, 2013; Liao et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Belvedere, Grando and Bielli, 2013; Liao <i>et al.</i>, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Belvedere et al., 2013; Liao et al., 2017). As combinações apresentadas parecem provocar uma mudança de paradigma fundamental na produção industrial sendo que esta visão comporta sistemas de produção que controlam o seu próprio processo de fabricação ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s12599-014-0334-4”, “ISBN” : “0949-0205”, “ISSN” : “18670202”, “PMID” : “1556941973”, “abstract” : “Industry 4.0 will transform the design, manufacture, operation, and service of products and production systems. Connectivity and interaction among parts, machines, and humans will make production systems as much as 30 percent faster and 25 percent more efficient and elevate mass customization to new levels. Transforming”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lasi”, “given” : “Heiner”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fettke”, “given” : “Peter”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kemper”, “given” : “Hans Georg”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Feld”, “given” : “Thomas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hoffmann”, “given” : “Michael”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Business and Information Systems Engineering”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “239-242”, “title” : “Industry 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6e5d5c2f-a921-43fc-826f-67658358da53” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lasi <i>et al.</i>, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lasi et al., 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lasi <i>et al.</i>, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lasi et al., 2014), onde a mudança tem como núcleo uma conversão entre o físico e o digital que proporciona um sistema de fabricação reconfigurável ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3991/ijim.v11i5.7072”, “ISSN” : “1865-7923”, “abstract” : “<p>&lt;p class=”0abstract”&gt;Industry 4.0 is a strategic initiative recently introduced by the German government. The goal of the initiative is transformation of industrial manufacturing through digitalization and exploitation of potentials of new technologies. An Industry 4.0 production system is thus flexible and enables individualized and customized products. The aim of this paper is to present and facilitate an understanding of Industry 4.0 concepts, its drivers, enablers, goals and limitations. Building blocks are described and smart factory concept is presented. A Reference Architecture Model RAMI4.0 and role of standardization in future implementation of Industry 4.0 concept are addressed. The current status of Industry 4.0 readiness of the German companies is presented and commented. Finally it is discussed if Industry 4.0 is really a disruptive concept or simply a natural incremental development of industrial production systems.&lt;/p&gt;</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rojko”, “given” : “Andreja”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “77”, “title” : “Industry 4.0 Concept: Background and Overview”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3aa3ace9-384d-420d-9c20-d451fd0281d1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rojko, 2017).

Os CPS apresentam-se como sendo sistemas que colaboram com entidades computacionais intensamente conectadas e conectando em torno do mundo físico usando simultaneamente o aceso e o processamento de dados que é disponibilizado pela Internet ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1515/auto-2015-0068”, “ISBN” : “0178-2312”, “ISSN” : “01782312”, “PMID” : “20961315”, “abstract” : “Industrie 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution, is a collective term embracing a number of contemporary automation, data exchange and manufacturing technologies. It had been defined as ‘a collective term for technologies and concepts of value chain organization’ which draws together Cyber-Physical Systems, the Internet of Things and the Internet of Services. Industrie 4.0 facilitates the vision and execution of a “Smart Factory”. Within the modular structured Smart Factories of Industry 4.0, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralized decisions. Over the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and with humans in real time, and via the Internet of Services, both internal and cross-organizational services are offered and utilized by participants of the value chain.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Beyerer”, “given” : “Ju00fcrgen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jasperneite”, “given” : “Ju00fcrgen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sauer”, “given” : “Olaf”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “At-Automatisierungstechnik”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “10”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “751-752”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “63” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ae49257-dcc5-4a7b-9e62-cde2d6ebdffd” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Beyerer, Jasperneite and Sauer, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Beyerer et al., 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Beyerer, Jasperneite and Sauer, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Beyerer, Jasperneite and Sauer, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Beyerer et al., 2015). Os CPS têm assim três requisitos essenciais: o objeto físico, um molde que possibilite a sua menção na estrutura da rede, e serviços que se baseiam nos dados disponível ao longo de todo o sistema ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Forum”, “given” : “Industry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “56-58”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c4793fe-7c64-4e51-be14-e1b9d71afc6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “( Drath e Horch, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Drath e Horch, 2014). Estes sistemas são sistemas autónomos com capacidade para tomarem as suas próprias decisões baseadas em algoritmos de aprendizagem em tempo real, que têm por base os dados capturados e a análise de resultados e comportamentos considerados de sucesso ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3991/ijim.v11i5.7072”, “ISSN” : “1865-7923”, “abstract” : “<p>&lt;p class=”0abstract”&gt;Industry 4.0 is a strategic initiative recently introduced by the German government. The goal of the initiative is transformation of industrial manufacturing through digitalization and exploitation of potentials of new technologies. An Industry 4.0 production system is thus flexible and enables individualized and customized products. The aim of this paper is to present and facilitate an understanding of Industry 4.0 concepts, its drivers, enablers, goals and limitations. Building blocks are described and smart factory concept is presented. A Reference Architecture Model RAMI4.0 and role of standardization in future implementation of Industry 4.0 concept are addressed. The current status of Industry 4.0 readiness of the German companies is presented and commented. Finally it is discussed if Industry 4.0 is really a disruptive concept or simply a natural incremental development of industrial production systems.&lt;/p&gt;</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rojko”, “given” : “Andreja”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “77”, “title” : “Industry 4.0 Concept: Background and Overview”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3aa3ace9-384d-420d-9c20-d451fd0281d1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rojko, 2017). Percebemos assim que fatores importantes da Indústria 4.0 são a interoperabilidade do sistema, ou seja, a sua capacidade de interagir e comunicar com outro, e ainda a sua conetividade.

Outros conceitos e aplicações são também extremamente importantes na realidade do tema. A IoT, II ou a inteligência artificial, permite que que o CPS funcione devidamente dada a sua função de conectar componentes fazendo com que interajam. Os mega-dados (big data) são também importantes como combustível para os sistemas e as suas tomadas de decisões, a computação em nuvem que é considerada como uma espinha dorsal técnica ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.promfg.2018.02.034”, “ISBN” : “9404601624”, “ISSN” : “23519789”, “abstract” : “Digitization and intelligentization of manufacturing process is the need for today’s industry. The manufacturing industries are currently changing from mass production to customized production. The rapid advancements in manufacturing technologies and applications in the industries help in increasing productivity. The term Industry 4.0 stands for the fourth industrial revolution which is defined as a new level of organization and control over the entire value chain of the life cycle of products; it is geared towards increasingly individualized customer requirements. Industry 4.0 is still visionary but a realistic concept which includes Internet of Things, Industrial Internet, Smart Manufacturing and Cloud based Manufacturing. Industry 4.0 concerns the strict integration of human in the manufacturing process so as to have continuous improvement and focus on value adding activities and avoiding wastes. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of Industry 4.0 and understanding of the nine pillars of Industry 4.0 with its applications and identifying the challenges and issues occurring with implementation the Industry 4.0 and to study the new trends and streams related to Industry 4.0.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vaidya”, “given” : “Saurabh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ambad”, “given” : “Prashant”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bhosle”, “given” : “Santosh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Procedia Manufacturing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “233-238”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “Industry 4.0 – A Glimpse”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “20” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5eb880f5-29dc-4f02-ad23-6bb2eb2ab4f2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vaidya, Ambad and Bhosle, 2018)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Vaidya et al. , 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vaidya, Ambad and Bhosle, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vaidya, Ambad and Bhosle, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vaidya et al. , 2018) e as fábricas inteligentes que acabam por ser a aplicação prática da indústria ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00207543.2017.1326643”, “ISSN” : “1366588X”, “abstract” : “The objective of this paper is to depict a landscape of the scientific literature on the concept of the ?Smart Factory?, which in recent years is gaining more and more attention from academics and practitioners because of significant innovations in the production systems within the manufacturing sector. To achieve this objective, a dynamic methodology called ?Systematic Literature Network Analysis (SLNA)? has been applied. This methodology combines the Systematic Literature Review approach with the analysis of bibliographic networks. The adopted methodology allows complementing traditional content-based literature reviews by extracting quantitative information from bibliographic networks to detect emerging topics, and by revealing the dynamic evolution of the scientific production of a discipline. This dynamic analysis allowed highlighting research directions and critical areas for the development of the ?Smart Factory?. At the same time, it offers insights on the fields on which companies, associations, politicians and technology providers need to focus in order to allow a real transition towards the implementation of large-scale Smart Factory.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Strozzi”, “given” : “Fernanda”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Colicchia”, “given” : “Claudia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Creazza”, “given” : “Alessandro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nou00e8”, “given” : “Carlo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Production Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “22”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-20”, “publisher” : “Taylor ; Francis”, “title” : “Literature review on the u2018smart factoryu2019 concept using bibliometric tools”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “55” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8ba2963d-6aa7-4259-8dff-dfbb39ff5f20” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Strozzi ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Strozzi et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Strozzi et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Strozzi ;i;et al.;/i;, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Strozzi et al., 2017). Outras noções parecem ter também um papel relevante como são as tecnologias inseridas no conceito de nuvem ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1145/2788397”, “ISBN” : “0360-0300”, “ISSN” : “03600300”, “abstract” : “A disruptive technology fundamentally transforming the way that computing services are delivered, cloud computing offers information and communication technology users a new dimension of convenience of resources, as services via the Internet. Because cloud provides a finite pool of virtualized on-demand resources, optimally scheduling them has become an essential and rewarding topic, where a trend of using Evolutionary Computation (EC) algorithms is emerging rapidly. Through analyzing the cloud computing architecture, this survey first presents taxonomy at two levels of scheduling cloud resources. It then paints a landscape of the scheduling problem and solutions. According to the taxonomy, a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art approaches is presented systematically. Looking forward, challenges and potential future research directions are investigated and invited, including real-time scheduling, adaptive dynamic scheduling, large-scale scheduling, multiobjective scheduling, and distributed and parallel scheduling. At the dawn of Industry 4.0, cloud computing scheduling for cyber-physical integration with the presence of big data is also discussed. Research in this area is only in its infancy, but with the rapid fusion of information and data technology, more exciting and agenda-setting topics are likely to emerge on the horizon.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhan”, “given” : “Zhi-Hui”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liu”, “given” : “Xiao-Fang”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gong”, “given” : “Yue-Jiao”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhang”, “given” : “Jun”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chung”, “given” : “Henry Shu-Hung”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Yun”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “ACM Computing Surveys”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-33”, “title” : “Cloud Computing Resource Scheduling and a Survey of Its Evolutionary Approaches”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “47” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bbdec31f-d99a-42e9-a31c-77ceaf20320e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Zhan ;i;et al.;/i;, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Zhan et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Zhan ;i;et al.;/i;, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Zhan et al., 2015), a integração de distintas tecnologias ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1109/JPROC.2015.2510981”, “ISBN” : “00189219 (ISSN)”, “ISSN” : “00189219”, “abstract” : “Industrial automation systems continuously get more complex and growing over time. This leads to an ever growing demand for efficient integration task bridging the gap between technologies, tools used across the enterprise, and alongside the value chain. With the new challenges imposed by introducing cyber-physical systems (CPSs) into industrial applications and while addressing Industry 4.0 concepts, the matter of integration is becoming even more crucial for the introduction of new technologies and their acceptance to customers. This paper introduces integration tasks to be tackled and describes up-to-date technologies as they are used in today’s automation industry. This is the basis for concepts addressing the integration issue when introducing CPSs and establishing mixed systems. Investigations are made regarding exploiting integration strategies for future systems.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bangemann”, “given” : “Thomas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Riedl”, “given” : “Matthias”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Thron”, “given” : “Mario”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Diedrich”, “given” : “Christian”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the IEEE”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “947-959”, “title” : “Integration of Classical Components into Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “104” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aaa05430-4e1c-4470-a1e1-2b99c24f4dd4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bangemann <i>et al.</i>, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Bangemann et al., 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bangemann et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bangemann <i>et al.</i>, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bangemann et al., 2016), e os serviços de provisão ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.127”, “ISBN” : “1877-0428”, “ISSN” : “18770428”, “abstract” : “The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relevance of the industrial service industry in the framework of the project: u201cIndustry 4.0u201d. In an increasing number of cases, the progress of the project is unsatisfactory and takes on a crisis-like character. Previous research in the context of the concept u201cIndustry 4.0u201d focus on production environments. By conducting expert interviews, the relevance of services for the future project is examined. The result of the study is the identification of relevant business services, and an assessment of the applicability of scientific approaches to service-networks for the project u201cIndustry 4.0u201d. The current state of research in the field of Industry 4.0 and service network is used as a basis for this study. The added value of this study is to create a model to assess the service sector by bringing together different scientific approaches so as to meet the necessary interdisciplinary requirement. The decision model allows the service industry to apply the evaluation model for the own business view and strategy. The added value of the evaluation model is the application of service network models in the concept u201cIndustry 4.0u201d and the completion of the theoretical and practical implementation dimension in the concept.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rennung”, “given” : “Frank”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Luminosu”, “given” : “Caius Tudor”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Draghici”, “given” : “Anca”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “372-377”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “Service Provision in the Framework of Industry 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “221” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=67aa4f06-1411-4725-91b8-501a9c63aa85” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rennung, Luminosu and Draghici, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Rennung et al., 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rennung, Luminosu and Draghici, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rennung, Luminosu and Draghici, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rennung et al., 2016), entre alguns outros.

Um dos projetos a ter em linha de conta no entendimento da envolvência do conceito industrial é o modelo “Reference Architeture Model for the Industry 4.0” (RAMI4.0). Este projeto está registado na Alemanha e é considerado a primeira compilação dos elementos fundamentais para a “Industrie 4.0”, sendo cada elemento reconhecido como pré-condição para o possível desenvolvimento de uma fábrica ou indústria inteligente. Contudo, na prática o modelo ainda continua a requerer alguma aceitação internacional ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s12599-014-0334-4”, “ISBN” : “0949-0205”, “ISSN” : “18670202”, “PMID” : “1556941973”, “abstract” : “Industry 4.0 will transform the design, manufacture, operation, and service of products and production systems. Connectivity and interaction among parts, machines, and humans will make production systems as much as 30 percent faster and 25 percent more efficient and elevate mass customization to new levels. Transforming”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lasi”, “given” : “Heiner”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fettke”, “given” : “Peter”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kemper”, “given” : “Hans Georg”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Feld”, “given” : “Thomas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hoffmann”, “given” : “Michael”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Business and Information Systems Engineering”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “239-242”, “title” : “Industry 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6e5d5c2f-a921-43fc-826f-67658358da53” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lasi <i>et al.</i>, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lasi et al., 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lasi <i>et al.</i>, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lasi et al., 2014).

Em suma, as máquinas consideradas inteligentes deverão ter a capacidade de tomar decisões por si próprias ao invés de uma instrução direta e exterior podendo ainda dar espaço a uma negociação com outras máquinas ou outros produtos inteligentes ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1155/2016/3159805”, “ISBN” : “1550-1329”, “ISSN” : “15501477”, “abstract” : “With the application of Internet of Things and services to manufacturing, the fourth stage of industrialization, referred to as Industrie 4.0, is believed to be approaching. For Industrie 4.0 to come true, it is essential to implement the horizontal integration of inter-corporation value network, the end-to-end integration of engineering value chain, and the vertical integration of factory inside. In this paper, we focus on the vertical integration to implement flexible and reconfigurable smart factory. We first propose a brief framework that incorporates industrial wireless networks, cloud, and fixed or mobile terminals with smart artifacts such as machines, products, and conveyors. Then, we elaborate the operational mechanism from the perspective of control engineering, that is, the smart artifacts form a self-organized system which is assisted with the feedback and coordination blocks that are implemented on the cloud and based on the big data analytics. In addition, we outline the main technical features and beneficial outcomes and present a detailed design scheme. We conclude that the smart factory of Industrie 4.0 is achievable by extensively applying the existing enabling technologies while actively coping with the technical challenges.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wang”, “given” : “Shiyong”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wan”, “given” : “Jiafu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Di”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhang”, “given” : “Chunhua”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Implementing Smart Factory of Industrie 4.0: An Outlook”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2016” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ac696b0-eec4-4c31-a0e1-48755fa94779” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wang et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wang et al., 2016). O algoritmo aparece, desta forma, revolucionando toda a automação e resposta de máquinas ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Forum”, “given” : “Industry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “56-58”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c4793fe-7c64-4e51-be14-e1b9d71afc6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Drath e Horch, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Drath e Horch, 2014).

Necessidades, caraterísticas, ações desencadeadoras e consciência ambiental da indústria 4.0Um dos fatores de contexto é a contextualização económica e social em que surge a ideia e não apenas uma contextualização tecnológica e geográfica. A ideia está inscrita na sombra da crise financeira internacional onde se redescobriu a significância do setor industrial, que volta a trazer para a agenda pública a tecnologia e o emprego, já que é real que coloca o seu foco na produção e no emprego industrial (Pfeiffer, 2017).

A tendência da fabricação inteligente pretende substituir os trabalhadores qualificados por máquinas movidas a algoritmos processando dados massivos, pelo menos parcialmente (Pfeiffer, 2017). Pela primeira vez uma revolução industrial ameaça afetar categoricamente a parte mais qualificada da mão de obra utilizada na fabricação. A produção industrial que até há poucos anos fazia parte da “velha economia” parece trazer consigo a capacidade de transformar o trabalho tal como o conhecemos.

Para um bom desenvolvimento, a nova indústria deve dar passos no sentido da proteção do investimento através da estabilidade pelo não comprometimento da produção que deve, por sua vez, respeitar a procura em tempo real e a disponibilidade. A privacidade de dados e a cibersegurança ganham agora outro alcance e importância já que se tratam de dados relacionados quer com a produção, serviços e produtos, quer com a empresa diretamente, quer com o consumidor, prevenindo problemas económicos e prejuízos humanos ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Forum”, “given” : “Industry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “56-58”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c4793fe-7c64-4e51-be14-e1b9d71afc6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Drath e Horch, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Drath e Horch, 2014).

É ainda de interesse referir que a esta proposta industrial se apresenta com habilidade não só para hoje, como também para o futuro especialmente em questões ambientais já que lida com a descarbonização da cadeia de energia, desastres naturais e escassez de reservas naturais ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Forum”, “given” : “Industry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “56-58”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c4793fe-7c64-4e51-be14-e1b9d71afc6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Drath e Horch, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Drath e Horch, 2014) na consciência de que o padrão atual de produção não é sustentável ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2175/106143014X14062131178952”, “ISSN” : “10614303”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Alkaya”, “given” : “Emrah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bogurcu”, “given” : “Merve”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ulutas”, “given” : “Ferda”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Demirer”, “given” : “Gu00f6ksel Niyazi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Water Environment Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “14-25”, “title” : “Adaptation to Climate Change in Industry: Improving Resource Efficiency through Sustainable Production Applications”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “87” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ae34ea90-3b73-474f-b554-134be9c33ae4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Alkaya <i>et al.</i>, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Alkaya et al., 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Alkaya et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Alkaya <i>et al.</i>, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Alkaya et al., 2015) já que a produção industrial produz uma grande destruição ambiental, contribui amplamente para o aquecimento global e é o local onde se consume uma relevante parte de recursos não renováveis como o petróleo e o carvão ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1155/2016/3159805”, “ISBN” : “1550-1329”, “ISSN” : “15501477”, “abstract” : “With the application of Internet of Things and services to manufacturing, the fourth stage of industrialization, referred to as Industrie 4.0, is believed to be approaching. 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Algumas ações principais desencadeadoras da nova revolução são apresentadas por Lasi (2014), tais como: a proposta de pequenos períodos de desenvolvimento, ou seja, um encurtamento do tempo de inovação demonstrando que uma elevada capacidade de inovação tem-se tornado um fator essencial de sucesso; tendência para os chamados “lote tamanho 1” onde a procura é extremamente individualizada evidenciado a mudança de paradigma seguido por décadas já que o consumidor passa agora, em grande medida, a definir as condições de comércio e ainda sustentando a rápida adaptabilidade da manufatura, isto é, proporcionando maior flexibilidade e reconfiguração; flexibilidade na produção; descentralização para lidar com condições específicas e garantir rápidas tomadas de decisão; uso eficiente de recursos reforçando a preocupação ecológica; aumento da digitalização como resultado, em parte, do aumento do número de atores participantes do sistema; e ainda a tendência em direção à minimalização refletindo a melhoria na performance de instalação de hardware tecnológico que progressivamente tem necessitado de menos espaço físico ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s12599-014-0334-4”, “ISBN” : “0949-0205”, “ISSN” : “18670202”, “PMID” : “1556941973”, “abstract” : “Industry 4.0 will transform the design, manufacture, operation, and service of products and production systems. Connectivity and interaction among parts, machines, and humans will make production systems as much as 30 percent faster and 25 percent more efficient and elevate mass customization to new levels. Transforming”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lasi”, “given” : “Heiner”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fettke”, “given” : “Peter”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kemper”, “given” : “Hans Georg”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Feld”, “given” : “Thomas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hoffmann”, “given” : “Michael”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Business and Information Systems Engineering”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “239-242”, “title” : “Industry 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6e5d5c2f-a921-43fc-826f-67658358da53” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lasi <i>et al.</i>, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lasi et al., 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lasi <i>et al.</i>, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lasi et al., 2014).

No relatório final do grupo de trabalho ‘Industrie 4.0’ ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.13140/RG.2.1.1205.8966”, “ISBN” : “9783831644933”, “ISSN” : “2405-8963”, “abstract” : “Germany has one of the most competitive manufacturing industries in the world and is a global leader in the manufacturing equipment sector. This is in no small measure due to Germanyu2019s specialisation in research, development and production of innovative manufacturing technologies and the management of complex industrial processes. Germanyu2019s strong machinery and plant manufacturing industry, its globally significant level of IT competences and its know-how in embedded systems and automation engineering mean that it is extremely well placed to develop its position as a leader in the manufacturing engineering industry. 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Uma integração horizontal através da cadeia de valor, a integração dos vários e diferentes sistemas utilizados na fabricação e nos planos de negócio da empresa ou empresas. Assim, corporações relacionadas podem formar ecossistemas eficientes. Uma integração vertical através dos sistemas de manufatura, onde máquinas inteligentes formam uma organização própria capaz de ser reconfigurada dinamicamente para adaptação a diferentes tipos de produtos. E uma integração digital da engenharia ‘end-to-end’, uma integração ao longo da cadeia de valor em diferentes empresas que enquadram e incorporam também os requisitos dos clientes ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00207543.2017.1308576”, “ISBN” : “1359-7345”, “ISSN” : “1366588X”, “PMID” : “24239943”, “abstract” : “Over the last few years, the fourth industrial revolution has attracted more and more attentions all around the world. 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ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liao”, “given” : “Yongxin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Deschamps”, “given” : “Fernando”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Loures”, “given” : “Eduardo de Freitas Rocha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ramos”, “given” : “Luiz Felipe Pierin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Production Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “3609-3629”, “publisher” : “Taylor & Francis”, “title” : “Past, present and future of Industry 4.0 – a systematic literature review and research agenda proposal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “55” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bcfffff8-ea29-4e71-9a8c-98814e342af9” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1155/2016/3159805”, “ISBN” : “1550-1329”, “ISSN” : “15501477”, “abstract” : “With the application of Internet of Things and services to manufacturing, the fourth stage of industrialization, referred to as Industrie 4.0, is believed to be approaching. For Industrie 4.0 to come true, it is essential to implement the horizontal integration of inter-corporation value network, the end-to-end integration of engineering value chain, and the vertical integration of factory inside. In this paper, we focus on the vertical integration to implement flexible and reconfigurable smart factory. We first propose a brief framework that incorporates industrial wireless networks, cloud, and fixed or mobile terminals with smart artifacts such as machines, products, and conveyors. Then, we elaborate the operational mechanism from the perspective of control engineering, that is, the smart artifacts form a self-organized system which is assisted with the feedback and coordination blocks that are implemented on the cloud and based on the big data analytics. In addition, we outline the main technical features and beneficial outcomes and present a detailed design scheme. We conclude that the smart factory of Industrie 4.0 is achievable by extensively applying the existing enabling technologies while actively coping with the technical challenges.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wang”, “given” : “Shiyong”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wan”, “given” : “Jiafu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Di”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhang”, “given” : “Chunhua”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Implementing Smart Factory of Industrie 4.0: An Outlook”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2016” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ac696b0-eec4-4c31-a0e1-48755fa94779” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016; Liao <i>et al.</i>, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wang et al., 2016; Liao et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016; Liao <i>et al.</i>, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wang et al., 2016; Liao et al., 2017).

O mesmo relatório ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.13140/RG.2.1.1205.8966”, “ISBN” : “9783831644933”, “ISSN” : “2405-8963”, “abstract” : “Germany has one of the most competitive manufacturing industries in the world and is a global leader in the manufacturing equipment sector. This is in no small measure due to Germanyu2019s specialisation in research, development and production of innovative manufacturing technologies and the management of complex industrial processes. Germanyu2019s strong machinery and plant manufacturing industry, its globally significant level of IT competences and its know-how in embedded systems and automation engineering mean that it is extremely well placed to develop its position as a leader in the manufacturing engineering industry. Germany is thus uniquely positioned to tap into the potential of a new type of industrialisation: Industrie 4.0.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes”, “given” : “Helbig”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Final report of the Industrie 4.0 WG”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “82”, “title” : “Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0fae6ad6-3574-4b75-ac9d-7b8ff7fc764d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes, 2013)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Henning, et al. 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Henning, Kagermann, Wolfgang, Wahlster, Johannes, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Henning, et al. 2013) propõe também oito áreas como prioritárias: desenvolvimento de um padrão comum providenciando uma descrição técnica; gerir sistemas complexos desenvolvendo um plano apropriado e modelos explicativos; fornecer uma infraestrutura abrangente fortalecendo uma comunicação confiável, compreensiva e de alta qualidade; garantir a segurança e a proteção de modo que esta produção não represente um perigo para pessoas e ambiente; implementação de abordagens sociotécnicas para organização do trabalho oferecendo oportunidades a trabalhadores e realçando o seu desenvolvimento pessoal; formação e desenvolvimento pessoal contínuo realizando formações estratégicas; mútua adaptação de inovações e legislação através de quadro de regulamento; e por fim proporcionar ganho de produtividade e eficiência de recursos. Outros artigos adicionam ainda a flexibilidade que garante a reconfiguração automaticamente, e a transparência alcançável através de mega-dados em tempo real e de forma completa e eficiente para cada aspeto da fábrica viabilizando rápidas e precisas tomadas de decisão ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1155/2016/3159805”, “ISBN” : “1550-1329”, “ISSN” : “15501477”, “abstract” : “With the application of Internet of Things and services to manufacturing, the fourth stage of industrialization, referred to as Industrie 4.0, is believed to be approaching. For Industrie 4.0 to come true, it is essential to implement the horizontal integration of inter-corporation value network, the end-to-end integration of engineering value chain, and the vertical integration of factory inside. In this paper, we focus on the vertical integration to implement flexible and reconfigurable smart factory. We first propose a brief framework that incorporates industrial wireless networks, cloud, and fixed or mobile terminals with smart artifacts such as machines, products, and conveyors. Then, we elaborate the operational mechanism from the perspective of control engineering, that is, the smart artifacts form a self-organized system which is assisted with the feedback and coordination blocks that are implemented on the cloud and based on the big data analytics. In addition, we outline the main technical features and beneficial outcomes and present a detailed design scheme. We conclude that the smart factory of Industrie 4.0 is achievable by extensively applying the existing enabling technologies while actively coping with the technical challenges.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wang”, “given” : “Shiyong”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wan”, “given” : “Jiafu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Di”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhang”, “given” : “Chunhua”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Implementing Smart Factory of Industrie 4.0: An Outlook”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2016” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ac696b0-eec4-4c31-a0e1-48755fa94779” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wang et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wang et al., 2016).

Assim, para um profissional, é importante a atenção à conetividade, como capacidade de conexão dos sistemas físicos por meio da IoT, à descentralização, à autonomia nos CPS que envolve monitorização, previsão de falhas, planos de manutenção, ações corretivas entre outros e deve ainda estar atento ao foco no serviço, integrando sempre a realidade de serviço ao cliente ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “86254589622114”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Portugal Ventures”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “page” : “3-5”, “title” : “Indu00fastria 4.0”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=52a8b3ae-b098-499f-aa6d-7e7740dcbee8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Portugal Ventures, no date)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Portugal Ventures)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Portugal Ventures, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Portugal Ventures, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Portugal Ventures).

Conclusões PreliminaresA realidade de um novo eixo de atividades económicas parece ser algo inevitável independentemente da nominação de “revolução industrial” – ponto em que muitas opiniões divergem entre verdade e exagero ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Forum”, “given” : “Industry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “June”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “56-58”, “title” : “Industrie 4.0: Hit or Hype?”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c4793fe-7c64-4e51-be14-e1b9d71afc6b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Drath e Horch, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Forum, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Drath e Horch, 2014).

A investigação e criação de software e hardware bem como novas análises de experiências laboratoriais e aplicações industriais parecem ser um grande campo de desenvolvimento. As principais disciplinas contribuintes e promotoras são a engenharia elétrica, a administração de empresas, a ciência de computadores, a engenharia de sistemas de negócios e informação, a engenharia mecânica e alguns pequenos segmentos participativos ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3991/ijim.v11i5.7072”, “ISSN” : “1865-7923”, “abstract” : “<p>&lt;p class=”0abstract”&gt;Industry 4.0 is a strategic initiative recently introduced by the German government. The goal of the initiative is transformation of industrial manufacturing through digitalization and exploitation of potentials of new technologies. An Industry 4.0 production system is thus flexible and enables individualized and customized products. The aim of this paper is to present and facilitate an understanding of Industry 4.0 concepts, its drivers, enablers, goals and limitations. Building blocks are described and smart factory concept is presented. A Reference Architecture Model RAMI4.0 and role of standardization in future implementation of Industry 4.0 concept are addressed. The current status of Industry 4.0 readiness of the German companies is presented and commented. Finally it is discussed if Industry 4.0 is really a disruptive concept or simply a natural incremental development of industrial production systems.&lt;/p&gt;</p>”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rojko”, “given” : “Andreja”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “77”, “title” : “Industry 4.0 Concept: Background and Overview”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3aa3ace9-384d-420d-9c20-d451fd0281d1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rojko, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rojko, 2017).

Contudo, ainda que atraídos por atenção ao nível global, a literatura corrente ainda continua a ter falhas, especialmente no que diz respeito à revisão sistemática sobre o estado na arte da nova onda de revolução industrial ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/00207543.2017.1308576”, “ISBN” : “1359-7345”, “ISSN” : “1366588X”, “PMID” : “24239943”, “abstract” : “Over the last few years, the fourth industrial revolution has attracted more and more attentions all around the world. In the current literature, there is still a lack of efforts to systematically review the state of the art of this new industrial revolution wave. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating the academic progresses in Industry 4.0. A systematic literature review was carried out to analyse the academic articles within the Industry 4.0 topic that were published online until the end of June 2016. In this paper, the obtained results from both the general data analysis of included papers (e.g. relevant journals, their subject areas and categories, conferences, keywords) and the specific data analysis corresponding to four research sub-questions are illustrated and discussed. These results not only summarise the current research activities (e.g. main research directions, applied standards, employed software and hardware), but also indicate existing deficiencies and potential research directions through proposing a research agenda. Findings of this review can be used as the basis for future research in Industry 4.0 and related topics. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liao”, “given” : “Yongxin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Deschamps”, “given” : “Fernando”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Loures”, “given” : “Eduardo de Freitas Rocha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ramos”, “given” : “Luiz Felipe Pierin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Production Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “3609-3629”, “publisher” : “Taylor & Francis”, “title” : “Past, present and future of Industry 4.0 – a systematic literature review and research agenda proposal”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “55” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bcfffff8-ea29-4e71-9a8c-98814e342af9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Liao <i>et al.</i>, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Liao et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Liao <i>et al.</i>, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Liao et al., 2017), sem esquecer que este é um tema que surgiu há apenas sete anos. Os estudos académicos são fundamentais para a vitalidade do tema em questão, sendo por isso uma parte indispensável no melhoramento e fortalecimento da 4RI ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s12599-014-0334-4”, “ISBN” : “0949-0205”, “ISSN” : “18670202”, “PMID” : “1556941973”, “abstract” : “Industry 4.0 will transform the design, manufacture, operation, and service of products and production systems. Connectivity and interaction among parts, machines, and humans will make production systems as much as 30 percent faster and 25 percent more efficient and elevate mass customization to new levels. 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As a result, discussing the topic on an academic level is difficult, and so is implementing Industrie 4.0 scenarios. Based on a literature review, the paper provides a definition of Industrie 4.0 and identifies six design principles for its implementation: interoperability, virtualization, decentralization, real-time capability, service orientation, and modularity. 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Podemos observar que o termo “Indústria 4.0” descreve distintas alterações no sistema de manufatura, desta forma não apresenta e propõe apenas implicações técnicas mas também uma versatilidade organizativa ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3991/ijim.v11i5.7072”, “ISSN” : “1865-7923”, “abstract” : “<p>&lt;p class=”0abstract”&gt;Industry 4.0 is a strategic initiative recently introduced by the German government. The goal of the initiative is transformation of industrial manufacturing through digitalization and exploitation of potentials of new technologies. An Industry 4.0 production system is thus flexible and enables individualized and customized products. The aim of this paper is to present and facilitate an understanding of Industry 4.0 concepts, its drivers, enablers, goals and limitations. Building blocks are described and smart factory concept is presented. 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Then, we elaborate the operational mechanism from the perspective of control engineering, that is, the smart artifacts form a self-organized system which is assisted with the feedback and coordination blocks that are implemented on the cloud and based on the big data analytics. In addition, we outline the main technical features and beneficial outcomes and present a detailed design scheme. We conclude that the smart factory of Industrie 4.0 is achievable by extensively applying the existing enabling technologies while actively coping with the technical challenges.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wang”, “given” : “Shiyong”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wan”, “given” : “Jiafu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Di”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhang”, “given” : “Chunhua”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Implementing Smart Factory of Industrie 4.0: An Outlook”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2016” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ac696b0-eec4-4c31-a0e1-48755fa94779” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wang et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wang et al., 2016). Por fim, será extremamente necessária a consciência de que as fabricas inteligentes trazem consigo inúmeros problemas de segurança ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1155/2016/3159805”, “ISBN” : “1550-1329”, “ISSN” : “15501477”, “abstract” : “With the application of Internet of Things and services to manufacturing, the fourth stage of industrialization, referred to as Industrie 4.0, is believed to be approaching. For Industrie 4.0 to come true, it is essential to implement the horizontal integration of inter-corporation value network, the end-to-end integration of engineering value chain, and the vertical integration of factory inside. In this paper, we focus on the vertical integration to implement flexible and reconfigurable smart factory. We first propose a brief framework that incorporates industrial wireless networks, cloud, and fixed or mobile terminals with smart artifacts such as machines, products, and conveyors. Then, we elaborate the operational mechanism from the perspective of control engineering, that is, the smart artifacts form a self-organized system which is assisted with the feedback and coordination blocks that are implemented on the cloud and based on the big data analytics. In addition, we outline the main technical features and beneficial outcomes and present a detailed design scheme. We conclude that the smart factory of Industrie 4.0 is achievable by extensively applying the existing enabling technologies while actively coping with the technical challenges.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wang”, “given” : “Shiyong”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wan”, “given” : “Jiafu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Di”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhang”, “given” : “Chunhua”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Implementing Smart Factory of Industrie 4.0: An Outlook”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2016” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9ac696b0-eec4-4c31-a0e1-48755fa94779” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wang et al., 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wang <i>et al.</i>, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wang et al., 2016) que deverão ser ultrapassados com um investimento em ciber-proteção ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.promfg.2018.02.034”, “ISBN” : “9404601624”, “ISSN” : “23519789”, “abstract” : “Digitization and intelligentization of manufacturing process is the need for today’s industry. The manufacturing industries are currently changing from mass production to customized production. The rapid advancements in manufacturing technologies and applications in the industries help in increasing productivity. The term Industry 4.0 stands for the fourth industrial revolution which is defined as a new level of organization and control over the entire value chain of the life cycle of products; it is geared towards increasingly individualized customer requirements. Industry 4.0 is still visionary but a realistic concept which includes Internet of Things, Industrial Internet, Smart Manufacturing and Cloud based Manufacturing. Industry 4.0 concerns the strict integration of human in the manufacturing process so as to have continuous improvement and focus on value adding activities and avoiding wastes. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of Industry 4.0 and understanding of the nine pillars of Industry 4.0 with its applications and identifying the challenges and issues occurring with implementation the Industry 4.0 and to study the new trends and streams related to Industry 4.0.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vaidya”, “given” : “Saurabh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ambad”, “given” : “Prashant”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bhosle”, “given” : “Santosh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Procedia Manufacturing”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “page” : “233-238”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “Industry 4.0 – A Glimpse”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “20” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5eb880f5-29dc-4f02-ad23-6bb2eb2ab4f2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vaidya, Ambad and Bhosle, 2018)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Vaidya et al., 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vaidya, Ambad and Bhosle, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vaidya, Ambad and Bhosle, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vaidya et al., 2018).
MetodologiaIntroduçãoA metodologia aplicada aos dados obtidos será a bibliometria. Segundo Lopes et al. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “A bibliometria u00e9 uma tu00e9cnica quantitativa e estatu00edstica para medir u00edndices de produu00e7u00e3o e disseminau00e7u00e3o do conhecimento, bem como acompanhar o desenvolvimento de diversas u00e1reas cientu00edficas e os padru00f5es de autoria, publicau00e7u00e3o e uso dos resultados de investigau00e7u00e3o. A avaliau00e7u00e3o da produu00e7u00e3o cientu00edfica, importante para o reconhecimento dos investigadores junto da comunidade cientu00edfica, u00e9 feita atravu00e9s da aplicau00e7u00e3o de diversos indicadores bibliomu00e9tricos, que se dividem em indicadores de qualidade, importu00e2ncia e impacto cientu00edficos. As limitau00e7u00f5es e controvu00e9rsias apontadas por vu00e1rios autores vu00eam colocar du00favidas acerca da validade da aplicau00e7u00e3o dos mesmos. Como resultado das cru00edticas levantadas sobre os principais indicadores bibliomu00e9tricos, nos u00faltimos anos tu00eam surgido novos indicadores. Assim, numa primeira fase deste estudo, pretende-se caracterizar e comparar os principais indicadores bibliomu00e9tricos tendo em atenu00e7u00e3o as suas vantagens e limitau00e7u00f5es bem como campo de aplicau00e7u00e3o. Atualmente su00e3o vu00e1rias as bases de dados que utilizam indicadores bibliomu00e9tricos e disponibilizam resultados de anu00e1lise bibliomu00e9trica, sendo a mais conhecida a Web of Science (WoS) da Thomson Reuteurs. Atu00e9 recentemente, a WoS foi a principal ferramenta utilizada para a realizau00e7u00e3o de anu00e1lise de citau00e7u00f5es. Esta situau00e7u00e3o, no entanto, ju00e1 nu00e3o se verifica, uma vez se existem atualmente outras ferramentas que tambu00e9m fornecem dados com base nas citau00e7u00f5es. No presente estudo destacamos duas delas: a Scopus da Elsevier e o Google Scholar Metrics (GSM) sendo feita uma anu00e1lise e comparau00e7u00e3o ao nu00edvel das caracteru00edsticas, vantagens e desvantagens destas tru00eas bases de dados com vista a perceber se su00e3o concorrentes ou complementares.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Amante”, “given” : “Maria Jou00e3o”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Costa”, “given” : “Teresa”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lopes”, “given” : “Su00edlvia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fernu00e1ndez-Limu00f3s”, “given” : “Fernando”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lopes”, “given” : “Pedro Faria”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “ACTAS – Congresso Nacional de Bibliotecu00e1rios, Arquivistas e Documentalistas, 11”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “1-7”, “title” : “A Bibliometria e a Avaliau00e7u00e3o da Produu00e7u00e3o Cientu00edfica: indicadores e ferramentas”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e7c99fb5-c013-400d-911d-9ef9f4a5b5f2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Amante ;i;et al.;/i;, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “(2012: 1)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Amante et al., 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Amante ;i;et al.;/i;, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(2012: 1): “bibliometria é uma técnica quantitativa e estatística para medir índices de produção e disseminação do conhecimento, bem como acompanhar o desenvolvimento de diversas áreas científicas e os padrões de autoria e publicação”.

ObjetivosA bibliometria pode ser vista como uma forma de entender a estrutura do conhecimento. No glossário de termos estatísticos disponibilizado pela OCDE é possível encontrar o termo “bibliometrics” que define “bibliometria como a análise estatística de livros, artigos e outras publicações”. Informa ainda que, na sua origem, o objetivo era a construção de indicadores para a pesquisa académica avaliando dados como o número de artigos e publicações, autores e campos da ciência. Posteriormente, com a análise de citações, as técnicas começam a ganhar mais sofisticação e hoje são um bom rastreador do desenvolvimento e mesmo da qualidade da ciência produzida, isto é, do estado da arte.

Desta forma, as ferramentas e os indicadores, como é o índice H ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hirsch”, “given” : “J E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “46”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “page” : “16569-16572”, “title” : “An index to quantify an individual u2019 s scientific research output”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “102” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=09368c1c-0495-49cb-b410-8e221c3d0650” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hirsch, 2005)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hirsch, 2005)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hirsch, 2005)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hirsch, 2005), que temos à disposição através da bibliometria serão utilizados dada a sua capacidade para detetar tendências, descontinuidades, grupos de autores, perceber e antever a direção das investigações ou pesquisas, o seu impacto e até as suas influências e deste modo obter respostas à questão de partida: “Qual a relevância, as raízes, a evolução e a dinâmica da literatura produzida a propósito do conceito “Indústria 4.0″ na área económica e social?”. Sintetizar descobertas anteriores é uma das tarefas consideradas mais importantes quando tomamos uma linha de pesquisa ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1094428114562629”, “ISBN” : “1094-4281”, “ISSN” : “15527425”, “abstract” : “We aim to develop a meaningful single-source reference for management and organization scholars interested in using bibliometric methods for mapping research specialties. Such methods introduce a measure of objectivity into the evaluation of scientific literature and hold the potential to increase rigor and mitigate researcher bias in reviews of scientific literature by aggregating the opinions of multiple scholars working in the field. We introduce the bibliometric methods of citation analysis, co-citation analysis, bibliographical coupling, co-author analysis, and co-word analysis and present a workflow for conducting bibliometric studies with guidelines for researchers. We envision that bibliometric methods will complement meta-analysis and qualitative structured literature reviews as a method for reviewing and evaluating scientific literature. To demonstrate bibliometric methods, we performed a citation and co-citation analysis to map the intellectual structure of the Organizational Research Methods journal.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zupic”, “given” : “Ivan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u010cater”, “given” : “Tomau017e”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Organizational Research Methods”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “429-472”, “title” : “Bibliometric Methods in Management and Organization”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=45a521cc-5e24-4399-9b74-05019a66689a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Zupic and u010cater, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Zupic e u010cater, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Zupic and u010cater, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Zupic and u010cater, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Zupic e ?ater, 2015).

Base de dadosComo principais variáveis a analisar serão usados elementos como o ano da publicação, o autor, a fonte ou o título da revista, as referências, as palavras-chave, o abstract, as citações, a afiliação (dos autores dos documentos), o país ou território aonde foram produzidos, o tipo de documento, a área de conhecimento a que pertence e ainda a sua evolução histórica. Estes componentes permitem construir uma imagem daquelas que são as contribuições para o tópico pesquisado.

Duas das ferramentas bibliométricas mais utilizadas para a obtenção de dados bibliográficos são a Scopus e Web of Science.
ScopusA Scopus é conhecida como sendo uma das maiores bases de dados de resumos e citações de bibliografia contendo cerca de 27 milhões de resumos capazes de conectarem citações até ao ano de 1966 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1186/1742-5581-3-1”, “ISBN” : “1742-5581”, “ISSN” : “17425581”, “PMID” : “16522216”, “abstract” : “The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Burnham”, “given” : “Judy F”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Biomedical Digital Libraries”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “1-9”, “title” : “Scopus database: A review”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8447e788-e57e-41a7-a81c-7050aa41d2aa” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Burnham, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Burnham, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Burnham, 2006)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Burnham, 2006). Quando introduzida em 2004 passou rapidamente a ser uma alternativa viável à grande e até então solitária ISI Web of Science ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s11192-009-2178-0”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vieira”, “given” : “E.S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gomes”, “given” : “J.A.N.F.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Scientometrics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “587-600”, “title” : “A comparison of Scopus and Web of Science for a typical university”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “81” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8e2bcd62-054d-489e-ab2e-4a9293a0f9cb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vieira and Gomes, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Vieira e Gomes, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vieira and Gomes, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vieira and Gomes, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vieira e Gomes, 2009). Esta base de dados ajuda o utilizador a avaliar os autores e ainda a tendência das pesquisas e das revistas. Um dos seus mais mencionados pontos fortes é a sua facilidade de pesquisa com ênfase na multidisciplinaridade permitindo que um pesquisador facilmente encontre documentos relevantes mesmo fora da sua área de pesquisa inicial ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1186/1742-5581-3-1”, “ISBN” : “1742-5581”, “ISSN” : “17425581”, “PMID” : “16522216”, “abstract” : “The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Burnham”, “given” : “Judy F”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Biomedical Digital Libraries”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “1-9”, “title” : “Scopus database: A review”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8447e788-e57e-41a7-a81c-7050aa41d2aa” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Burnham, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Burnham, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Burnham, 2006)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Burnham, 2006). A Scopus é propriedade da Elsevier, editora de revistas científicas importantes, e disponibilizada na Web para os seus assinantes.

Web of scienceA Web of Science (WoS) é o novo nome da antiga Web of Knowledge, desde Janeiro de 2014, mantida por Clarivate Analytics. A WoS, de elevada importância especialmente no que diz respeito a revistas científicas, permite o acesso a várias bases de dados como SciELO Citation Index, Derwent innovations Index, entre outras e destacando-se a própria base de dados – “Web of Science Core Collection”. Até 2004 (ano de lançamento da Scopus) esta base de dados detinha o domínio enquanto base de indicadores bibliométricos de um modo geral para qualquer área da ciência ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s11192-009-2178-0”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vieira”, “given” : “E.S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gomes”, “given” : “J.A.N.F.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Scientometrics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “587-600”, “title” : “A comparison of Scopus and Web of Science for a typical university”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “81” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8e2bcd62-054d-489e-ab2e-4a9293a0f9cb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vieira and Gomes, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Vieira e Gomes, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vieira and Gomes, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vieira and Gomes, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Vieira e Gomes, 2009). A WoS apresenta como fortaleza a sua vasta coleção com capacidade de recuar até ao ano de 1945 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1186/1742-5581-3-1”, “ISBN” : “1742-5581”, “ISSN” : “17425581”, “PMID” : “16522216”, “abstract” : “The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Burnham”, “given” : “Judy F”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Biomedical Digital Libraries”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “1-9”, “title” : “Scopus database: A review”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8447e788-e57e-41a7-a81c-7050aa41d2aa” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Burnham, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Burnham, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Burnham, 2006)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Burnham, 2006). Mais uma vez, esta trata-se de uma base de dados disponibilizada para assinantes.

Aquisição de dados e identificação da amostraA informação e os dados recolhidos para a análise ao longo desta dissertação foram obtidos nas bases de dados bibliográficos apresentadas anteriormente (a Scopus e WoS) já que ambas são de elevada importância no estudo bibliométrico, fornecendo relevantes informações para a investigação (Lopes et al., 2012).

A primeira grande questão apresentada na pesquisa tem a ver com a terminologia utilizada na mesma, isto é, a limitação do alvo de estudo através de inclusão e exclusão de artigos dada uma chave de pesquisa ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1057/jibs.2013.20”, “ISBN” : “0047-2506”, “ISSN” : “00472506”, “PMID” : “88921727”, “abstract” : “This study examines the citations used in the global branding literature (GBL), and evaluates the knowledge structure of this area of research to date. Our bibliometric analysis involves an examination of 120 global branding articles in business-related research. We employ multidimensional scaling to reveal a range of intellectual influences that have helped shape the GBL. The foundation of knowledge in the GBL is uncovered by analyzing co-citation data to identify important topical influences in the formation of global branding research. The conceptual framework developed incorporates five areas with important implications for the future development of global branding as an area of inquiry. These major research topics in the GBL are international branding strategy, brand positioning, brand/country origin, brand concept-image, and brand performance. We leverage resource- and capability-based paradigms, and use the five underpinning knowledge groups to propose an agenda for future research that fills existing gaps and offers the potential to advance and enrich the GBL. Journal”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chabowski”, “given” : “Brian R.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Samiee”, “given” : “Saeed”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hult”, “given” : “G. Tomas M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of International Business Studies”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “622-634”, “publisher” : “Nature Publishing Group”, “title” : “A bibliometric analysis of the global branding literature and a research agenda”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “44” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2d43f13e-c4ec-4de6-ad73-bfe7e83ca5a1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Chabowski, Samiee and Hult, 2013)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Chabowski et al., 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Chabowski, Samiee and Hult, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Chabowski, Samiee and Hult, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Chabowski et al., 2013). Para a localização de estudos foram aplicados vários critérios que podem ser resumidos pela Tabela 3.1.
Critério de identificação de dados
Abrangência temporal – Até 2017
Base de Dados – Scopus
– WoS
Tipos de Documentos – Artigos académicos (artigos e reviews)
– Publicações em inglês
– Área económica e social
Pesquisa – Pesquisa na Scopus e Web of Science no título, resumo e palavras-chave
– Descritores “industry 4.0” AND “fourth industrial revolution” AND “4th industrial revolution” AND “industrie 4.0”
Assim foram obtidos um total de 158 artigos para a base de dados Scopus e 69 para WoS (38 destes artigos são comuns)
Tabela STYLEREF 1 s 3. SEQ Tabela * ARABIC s 1 1 – Critérios de identificação de estudosPrimeiramente, para limitação do estudo, foi constituído um conjunto de diferentes sinónimos de “industry 4.0” expandindo este mesmo termo às diferentes grafias da expressão “quarta” e adicionando “industrie 4.0”, a equivalente expressão utilizada na língua alemã, que foi tomada como relevante não só por ser a origem da terminologia mas também pelo facto de cobrir mais uma pequena área de publicações que remetiam ao termo alemão ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1109/HICSS.2016.488”, “ISBN” : “9780769556703”, “ISSN” : “15301605”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Although Industrie 4.0 is currently a top priority for many companies, research centers, and universities, a generally accepted definition of the term does not exist. As a result, discussing the topic on an academic level is difficult, and so is implementing Industrie 4.0 scenarios. Based on a literature review, the paper provides a definition of Industrie 4.0 and identifies six design principles for its implementation: interoperability, virtualization, decentralization, real-time capability, service orientation, and modularity. Taking into account these principles, academics may be enabled to further investigate on the topic, while practitioners may find assistance in implementing appropriate scenarios”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hermann”, “given” : “Mario”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pentek”, “given” : “Tobias”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Otto”, “given” : “Boris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “3928-3937”, “title” : “Design principles for industrie 4.0 scenarios”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “2016-March” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4447c65c-bed0-4569-8de5-fffe034f628b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Hermann et al., 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hermann, Pentek and Otto, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hermann et al., 2016). Foram assim combinadas, através do operador booleano “OR” entre cada um dos seguintes termos, as palavras-chave: “industry 4.0”, “fourth industrial revolution”, “4th industrial revolution” e “industrie 4.0” que efetuaram a sua pesquisa nos campos de “título do artigo”, “resumo” e “palavras-chave”.
left3031490Figura STYLEREF 1 s 3. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 1 – Diagrama de Venn da composição da pesquisa através das duas bases de dados00Figura STYLEREF 1 s 3. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 1 – Diagrama de Venn da composição da pesquisa através das duas bases de dadosCom a anterior conjugação obtivemos uma chave de pesquisa que nos permitiu a obtenção de 3.069 documentos na base de dados Scopus e 1.834 documentos na base de dados WoS. Ao total de artigos em bruto aplicamos vários filtros por forma a constituir uma base de dados pronta a analisar, sendo eles: (1) espetro de tempo limitado ao ano 2017 (incluindo este ano) por forma a obter informação de anos com publicação fechada viabilizando uma análise temporal mais pormenorizada, (2) documentos publicados em inglês mantendo aberta e praticável a possibilidade de análise, (3) apenas admitindo artigos e review, (4) e por fim focamos nas áreas económica e social dada a nossa área de investigação e conhecimento. Assim, atingimos um total de 158 artigos para a base de dados Scopus e 69 artigos para a WoS onde 38 artigos constavam em ambas as bases de dados, assim obtivemos um total de 189 artigos diferentes.

center72136000
Extraindo os resultados de ambas as bases de dados foi estabelecida correspondência entre as palavras-chave dos autores e cada um dos artigos por vista a perceber que outras palavras-chave pareciam merecer incorporação numa segunda pesquisa nas bases de dados através da sua frequência. Entre as 791 palavras-chave utilizadas pelos autores existiam 540 expressões distintas. Destacamos as 12 palavra-chave mais utilizadas que foram empregadas pelo menos 5 vezes na lista de artigos obtida, sendo apresentadas na tabela seguinte (tabela 3.2).
Palavra(s)-chave Frequência Percentagem
“Industry 4.0” 74 39,15%
“Internet of Things-(IoT)” 16 8,47%
“Fourth Industrial Revolution” 15 7,94%
“Cyber Physical Systems-(CPS)” 15 7,94%
“Industrie 4.0” 10 5,29%
“Innovation” 9 4,76%
“Sustainability” 7 3,70%
“Automation” 6 3,17%
“Digitalization” 6 3,17%
“SME” 6 3,17%
“Big Data” 5 2,65%
“Smart Factory” 5 2,65%
Tabela STYLEREF 1 s 3. SEQ Tabela * ARABIC s 1 2 – Top 12 palavras-chave e respetiva percentagem no totalApós a observação dos resultados concluímos que nenhum novo termo chave foi encontrado que representasse palavras-chave de autores de pelo menos 10% dos artigos, ou seja, com frequência mínima de 19. Passando a uma significância inferior, de pelo menos 5% (frequência mínima de 9), temos dois novos termos chave, “Internet of Things – (IoT)” e “Cyber Physical System – (CPS)” que dada a abrangência de temas, e considerando que a “Indústria 4.0” se serve destas tecnologias mas que as mesmas não necessariamente representam esta nova revolução descrita, foi dada preferência à chave de pesquisa inicial, não admitindo assim nenhum novo termo. Contudo, na consciência da importância da IoT e dos CPS para o desenvolvimento e veracidade desta Indústria, os conceitos são apresentados e expostos no Capítulo 1 desta dissertação, bem como outra terminologia que se julga relevante para a evolução deste conceito. Portanto, nesta fase a nossa amostra mantem-se com um total de 189 artigos (120 na base da Scopus, 31 na base da WoS e 38 comuns a ambas as bases de dados).

“Instrumentos e técnicas”Para o tratamento, análise e mapeamento dos dados recorreremos a diferentes softwares. O suporte do Microsoft Excel© foi utilizado quer para a análise temporal quer para a construção do perfil de autoria, fonte, filiação ou proveniência mais relevantes.

No que diz respeito à construção de redes de coautoria, cocitação e acoplamento bibliográfico foi utilizado o software VOSviewer. Esta é uma ferramenta que permite a construção e visualização de redes e conexões bibliográficas desenvolvida por Nees Jan van Eck e Ludo Waltman em 2010 na Universidade de Leiden (Holanda), um software disponível gratuitamente ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.joi.2018.03.005”, “ISSN” : “18755879”, “abstract” : “This study investigates the use, citation and diffusion of three bibliometric mapping software tools (CiteSpace, HistCite and VOSviewer) in scientific papers. We first conduct a content analysis of a sample of 481 English core journal papers – i.e., papers from journals deemed central to their respective disciplines – in which at least one of these tools is mentioned. This allows us to understand the predominant mention and citation practices surrounding these tools. We then employ several diffusion indicators to gain insight into the diffusion patterns of the three software tools. Overall, we find that researchers mention and cite the tools in diverse ways, many of which fall short of a traditional formal citation. Our results further indicate a clear upward trend in the use of all three tools, though VOSviewer is more frequently used than CiteSpace or HistCite. We also find that these three software tools have seen the fastest and most widespread adoption in library and information science research, where the tools originated. They have since been gradually adopted in other areas of study, initially at a lower diffusion speed but afterward at a rapidly growing rate.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eck”, “given” : “Nees Jan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “van”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Waltman”, “given” : “Ludo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology banner”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “8”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “1635-1651”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Ltd”, “title” : “How to Noemalize Cooccurence Data? An Analysis of Some Well-Known Similarity Measures”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “60” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0511f8f4-b247-45eb-862f-92c6fcc5dfe1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2009a)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2009a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2009a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(van Eck and Waltman, 2009a). Foi apresentado pela Scientimetrics em 2010 e o método de visualização é essencialmente baseado na distância entre nós e na sua dimensão, sendo que a relação entre nós é tanto maior quanto menor a distância entre eles e a importância tanto maior quanto maior a sua dimensão ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/978-3-319-10377-8_13”, “ISBN” : “9783319103778”, “abstract” : “This chapter provides an introduction to the topic of visualizing bibliometric networks. First, the most commonly studied types of bibliometric networks (i.e., citation, co-citation, bibliographic coupling, keyword co-occurrence, and coauthorship networks) are discussed, and three popular visualization approaches (i.e., distance-based, graph-based, and timeline-based approaches) are distinguished. Next, an overview is given of a number of software tools that can be used for visualizing bibliometric networks. In the second part of the chapter, the focus is specifically on two software tools: VOSviewer and CitNetExplorer. The techniques used by these tools to construct, analyze, and visualize bibliometric networks are discussed. In addition, tutorials are offered that demonstrate in a step-by-step manner how both tools can be used. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of the limitations and the proper use of bibliometric network visualizations and with a summary of some ongoing and future developments.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eck”, “given” : “Nees Jan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “van”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Waltman”, “given” : “Ludo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Measuring Scholarly Impact”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “number-of-pages” : “285-320”, “title” : “Visualizing Bibliometric Networks”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4cc07c7f-280d-4cc9-bb3c-09126f3128d8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(van Eck e Waltman, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(van Eck e Waltman, 2014). Assim, utilizaremos este software para analisar o corpo da literatura produzida em torno do termo ‘indústria 4.0’.

Nesta fase da investigação foi tomada a decisão de permanecer apenas com os documentos considerados mais influentes e pertinentes para a área de pesquisa em questão permanecendo, desta forma, com uma base de tamanho razoável para gerir ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1094428114562629”, “ISBN” : “1094-4281”, “ISSN” : “15527425”, “abstract” : “We aim to develop a meaningful single-source reference for management and organization scholars interested in using bibliometric methods for mapping research specialties. Such methods introduce a measure of objectivity into the evaluation of scientific literature and hold the potential to increase rigor and mitigate researcher bias in reviews of scientific literature by aggregating the opinions of multiple scholars working in the field. We introduce the bibliometric methods of citation analysis, co-citation analysis, bibliographical coupling, co-author analysis, and co-word analysis and present a workflow for conducting bibliometric studies with guidelines for researchers. We envision that bibliometric methods will complement meta-analysis and qualitative structured literature reviews as a method for reviewing and evaluating scientific literature. To demonstrate bibliometric methods, we performed a citation and co-citation analysis to map the intellectual structure of the Organizational Research Methods journal.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zupic”, “given” : “Ivan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u010cater”, “given” : “Tomau017e”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Organizational Research Methods”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “429-472”, “title” : “Bibliometric Methods in Management and Organization”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=45a521cc-5e24-4399-9b74-05019a66689a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Zupic and u010cater, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Zupic e u010cater, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Zupic and u010cater, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Zupic and u010cater, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Zupic e ?ater, 2015). Sabemos ainda que os resultados que nos são apresentados pela Scopus e pela WoS se encontram correlacionados ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/meet.14504301185”, “ISBN” : “1550-8390”, “ISSN” : “00447870”, “PMID” : “8607”, “abstract” : “When faculty members are evaluated, they are judged in part by the impact and quality of their scholarly publications. While all academic institutions look to publication counts and venues as well as the subjective opinions of peers, many hiring, tenure, and promotion committees also rely on citation analysis to obtain a more objective assessment of an author’s work. Consequently, faculty members try to identify as many citations to their published works as possible to provide a comprehensive assessment of their publication impact on the scholarly and professional communities. The Institute for Scientific Information’s (ISI) citation databases, which are widely used as a starting point if not the only source for locating citations, have several limitations that may leave gaps in the coverage of citations to an author’s work. This paper presents a case study comparing citations found in Scopus and Google Scholar with those found in Web of Science (the portal used to search the three ISI citation databases) for items published by two Library and Information Science full-time faculty members. In addition, the paper presents a brief overview of a prototype system called CiteSearch, which analyzes combined data from multiple citation databases to produce citation-based quality evaluation measures.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yang”, “given” : “Kiduk”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Meho”, “given” : “Lokman I”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “1-15”, “title” : “Citation Analysis: A Comparison of Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “43” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=194992f5-e04f-459a-9892-1712ca05a7f0” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/asi”, “ISBN” : “9783848215430”, “ISSN” : “19335954”, “PMID” : “502955140”, “abstract” : “Academic librarians throughout higher education add value to the teaching and learning missions of their institutions though information literacy instruction. To demonstrate the full impact of librarians on students in higher education, librarians need comprehensive information literacy assessment plans, composed of instructional program-level and outcome-level components, that summarize the purpose of information literacy assessment, emphasize the theoretical basis of their assessment efforts, articulate specific information literacy goals and outcomes, describe the major assessment methods and tools used to capture evidence of student learning, report assessment results, and highlight improvements made as a consequence of learning assessment.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Oakleaf”, “given” : “Megan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Communications in Information Literacy”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “80-90”, “title” : “Writing information literacy assessment plans: A guide to best practice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d326888a-1d2f-4757-a72c-8a0a3203f252” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yang and Meho, 2006; Oakleaf, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Oakleaf, 2009 e Yang & Meho, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yang and Meho, 2006; Oakleaf, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yang and Meho, 2006; Oakleaf, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Oakleaf, 2009 e Yang & Meho, 2007). A Scopus apresenta ainda um perfil mais detalhado quer de composição de artigos e panorama, quer de informação bibliográfica pelo que passamos a trabalhar apenas com os resultados ali obtidos eliminando desta feita também o problema de conjugação de informações bibliográficas (já que as duas bases de dados a apresentam de forma distinta) nos softwares através dos quais procederemos à análise de dados. A opção de investigar apenas uma base de dados é tomada somente neste momento por forma a manter a expansão (considerada uma mais valia) da recolha apresentada ao longo das secções anteriores.

Assim, sob a descrição de “industria 4.0” como uma combinação de métodos de produção com tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC) capazes de provocar mudanças no trabalho e/ou na fabricação/produção/indústria, foram lidos integralmente os resumos dos 158 artigos output da base de dados Scopus dada a compreensão de que, mesmo com uma chave de pesquisa aplicada corretamente, podem existir artigos que persistem na nossa pesquisa mas não se enquadram no panorama geral que procuramos, introduzindo assim outliers e reduzindo a validade dos resultados ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1094428114562629”, “ISBN” : “1094-4281”, “ISSN” : “15527425”, “abstract” : “We aim to develop a meaningful single-source reference for management and organization scholars interested in using bibliometric methods for mapping research specialties. Such methods introduce a measure of objectivity into the evaluation of scientific literature and hold the potential to increase rigor and mitigate researcher bias in reviews of scientific literature by aggregating the opinions of multiple scholars working in the field. We introduce the bibliometric methods of citation analysis, co-citation analysis, bibliographical coupling, co-author analysis, and co-word analysis and present a workflow for conducting bibliometric studies with guidelines for researchers. We envision that bibliometric methods will complement meta-analysis and qualitative structured literature reviews as a method for reviewing and evaluating scientific literature. To demonstrate bibliometric methods, we performed a citation and co-citation analysis to map the intellectual structure of the Organizational Research Methods journal.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zupic”, “given” : “Ivan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “u010cater”, “given” : “Tomau017e”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Organizational Research Methods”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “429-472”, “title” : “Bibliometric Methods in Management and Organization”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “18” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=45a521cc-5e24-4399-9b74-05019a66689a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Zupic and u010cater, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Zupic e u010cater, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Zupic and u010cater, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Zupic and u010cater, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Zupic e ?ater, 2015). Foi tido por objetivo mitigar o enviesamento provocado pela subjetividade decorrente da exclusão por leitura de resumo através da descrição apresentada no início deste parágrafo. Após a leitura foram excluídos 13 artigos, dos 158 outputs da Scopus segundo a pesquisa filtrada efetuada, sendo deste modo a base de dados composta por 145 artigos que a partir do presente momento passam a integrar as análises que serão apresentadas.

Análise de ResultadosEvolução ao longo do tempoConforme seria de esperar, a produção de artigos considerados relevantes para o tema e as áreas pesquisadas têm, de um modo geral, uma tendência crescente com exceção do ano 2017 que registou uma produção destes documentos inferior à do ano 2016. A primeira entrada ocorre em 2012, ano subsequente ao de apresentação da terminologia na “Hannover Messe Fair”, com apenas 1 artigo, enquanto que no último ano analisado (2017) estamos perante uma lista de 73 artigos no total (Figura 4.1). Contudo, a maior contribuição acontece no ano 2016, ano em que a WEF em Davos apresenta o tema “Mastering The Fourth Industrial Revolution” (Figura 4.2).

right3337643Figura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 1 – Acréscimos anuais de documentos (relativamente à base de dados)
0Figura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 1 – Acréscimos anuais de documentos (relativamente à base de dados)
center32956500right994Figura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 2 – Histórico do número de documentos00Figura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 2 – Histórico do número de documentos
90995519431000
RevistasA base dos artigos pertence a 77 revistas distintas. Selecionando aquelas revistas que contribuem com, pelo menos, três artigos para a base de dados encontramos e construímos o top 7 das revistas que são apresentadas na Tabela 4.1, que na sua soma representam exatamente 40% da nossa base de dados. Por uma larga escala a nossa fonte mais importante é a revista “ZWF Zeitschrift Fuer Wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb” colaborando em 22,07% para a amostra com os seus 32 artigos captados na nossa pesquisa.
A Figura 4.3 apresenta-nos as contribuições anuais para cada uma das revistas consideradas mais relevantes no estudo por adicionarem o maior número de artigos à base por nós analisada. E mais uma vez observamos que a maior contribuição de uma fonte acontece em 2016, também ela pela revista “ZWF Zeitschrift Fuer Wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb” com um total de 20 artigos (Figura 4.3).

Para estas sete revistas mais importantes no estudo temos ainda os indicadores CiteScore – ferramenta métrica da Scopus que apresenta a média de citações recebidas por documento publicado na revista para uma média de três anos – o SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) – medida de influência científica que avalia não só as citações como o prestígio do jornal – e ainda o indicador Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) – que mede o impacto da citação tendo por base de comparação o número total de citações no campo de assunto a que a mesma pertence.

Para a lista apresentada na tabela 4.1 as médias são 1.35, 0.515 e 0.867 para os indicadores CiteScore, SJR e SNIP respetivamente. A revista “Industrial Management and Data System” é, de entre todas, a que apresenta CiteScore e SNIP mais elevado enquanto a “International Journal of Production Research” apresenta o melhor resultado SJR.

Revista Foco da Revista Número de Artigos na Amostra Percentagem total de artigos na amostra 2017
CiteScore SJR SNIP
ZWF Zeitschrift Fuer Wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb A revista pretende entregar ao leitor fundamentalmente artigos especializados em desenvolvimentos recentes na engenharia de produção e ainda processos de serviços industriais. Coloca especial ênfase na eficiência do processo produtivo e na redução dos custos 32 22,07% 0,25 0,365 0,656
Productivity Management
Tem o seu núcleo em questões essencialmente ligadas tanto à gestão e contabilidade como à engenharia industrial e de fabricação 7 4,83% 0,05 0,113 0,115
International Journal Of Production Research A presente revista visa abordar tópicos que conectam engenharia e gestão, temas relacionados ao processo de fabricação e produção em geral. 5 3,45% 2,90 1,432 1,483
Plant Engineer Revista fortemente ligada à indústria e engenharia dentro da mesma. Pretender fornecer informações práticas e atualizadas profissional. 5 3,45% 0,00 0,100 –
Industrial Management And Data Systems O foco da revista recai sobre temas que visam integrar a gestão de operações com sistemas de informação com o objetivo de potencializar a aplicação de novas tecnologias. 3 2,07% 3,43 0,904 1,425
Journal Of Industrial Engineering And Management Trata-se de uma revista científica que promove temas relacionados com a engenharia e gestão industrial. 3 2,07% 0,74 0,215 0,557
Journal Of Security And Sustainability Issues Fundamentalmente ligado a relações internacionais, política global e assuntos internacionais. 3 2,07% 2,08 0,473 0,968
Tabela STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Tabela * ARABIC s 1 1 – Top 7 jornais e respetivas descriçõesRevista Categoria 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
ZWF Zeitschrift Fuer Wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb Negócios, Gestão e Contabilidade Q2 Q2 Q2 Q2 Q3 Q2
Ciências da Decisão Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3
Engenharia Q2 Q2 Q2 Q2 Q2 Q2
Productivity Management Negócios, Gestão e Contabilidade Q3 Q3 Q2 Q3 Q3 Q4
Engenharia Q3 Q3 Q2 Q2 Q3 Q4
International Journal Of Production Research Negócios, Gestão e Contabilidade Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1
Ciências da Decisão Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1
Engenharia Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1
Plant Engineer Negócios, Gestão e Contabilidade Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4
Engenharia Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4
Industrial Management And Data Systems Negócios, Gestão e Contabilidade Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1
Ciências da Informática Q1 Q1 Q1 Q2 Q2 Q1
Engenharia Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1
Journal Of Industrial Engineering And Management Negócios, Gestão e Contabilidade Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3
Engenharia Q2 Q2 Q2 Q2 Q2 Q3
Journal Of Security And Sustainability Issues Energia Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3
Ciências Sociais Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3 Q2 Q2
Tabela STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Tabela * ARABIC s 1 2 – Distribuição por quartis das 7 principais revistas por tema e por anoQuartil de posicionamento da Revista Descrição da categoria segundo SCImago JR
Q1 Alta
Q2 Média-alta
Q3 Média-baixa
Q4 Baixa
left28702000right2540Figura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 3 – Documentos anuais por revista0Figura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 3 – Documentos anuais por revista
A Tabela 4.2 apresenta a classificação para cada uma das principais 7 revistas, por quartis para as distintas áreas das mesmas, segundo a SCImago JR (que tem por base de dados a Scopus). A escala divide-se entre Q1 – para a qualidade mais alta – e Q4 – para a qualidade mais baixa.

Podemos observar que, para a mesma revista, em diversos casos a classificação em quartis é diferente, consoante a categoria a que nos referimos. De um modo geral, a maioria das revistas pertence ao quartil Q2 e Q3 apresentando uma qualidade média. Contudo, destacamos as revistas “International Journal Of Production Research” e “Industrial Management And Data Systems” dada a qualidade acima da média (Q1 para o período analisado com exceção do ano 2015 e 2016 para a segunda revista).

A qualidade média das revistas pode ser observada na Figura 4.4 entre o ano de 2012 e o ano de 2017, onde constatamos que a média para as 7 revistas apresentadas está entre 2,3 e 2,6, assim entre o Q2 e o Q3. Até 2014 verificou-se um aumento de qualidade, contudo, desde então a qualidade tem vindo a deteriorar-se (para a média das revistas).

left63246000center267970Figura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 4 – Evolução da qualidade média das revistasFigura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 4 – Evolução da qualidade média das revistas
Autores mais importantesOs 145 artigos que constituem a base de dados têm autoria e coautoria de 350 autores individuais. A grande parte dos autores publicou apenas 1 artigo (329 autores que corresponde a 94% do espetro de autoria), 18 autores publicaram 2 artigos (5,14% do total) e apenas 3 autores publicaram 3 artigos (0,86% da totalidade dos autores).
Quanto aos autores mais relevantes no presente estudo (Gunther Reinhart, Adam Sanders e Jens Peter Wulfsberg) podemos observar que ambos se encontram filiados em universidades alemãs e dentro destes, dois na “Helmut Schmidt University – University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Institute of Production Engineering, Hamburg, Germany”. Alargando o estudo aos autores que contribuem com pelo menos 2 artigos para a presente base de dados (adição de 18 autores aos 3 iniciais) mantem-se a prevalência de filiação alemãs (Christian Arnold, Hertmut F. Binner, Stefan Braunreuther, Enayat Danishjoo, Oliver Herkommer, Daniel Kiel, Jan Klöber-Koch, Joachim Metternich, Kai Ingo Voigt e Hartmut Zeeb), mas desta feita com contributos de filiações a Universidades, Politécnicos e Instituições de Itália (Patrick Dallasega e Erwin Rauch), Reino Unido (Mark Venables), Rússia (Elizaveta A. Gromova e Elena Balashova), Eslováquia (Naqib Daneshjo e Milan Majerník) e Estónia (Gunnar Prause).

As principais áreas de estudo, entre os autores mais influentes (tendo em conta os 21 anteriormente apresentados), são engenharia, negócios, gestão, contabilidade e ciências da computação, da decisão e sociais. As áreas mais mencionadas para descrição dos estudos dos autores confirmam a importância da indústria 4.0 na área da engenharia, tendo em conta não só a sua origem como também a vasta área para progressão, e ainda a nossa opção de filtragem por áreas económicas e sociais. Outras áreas de estudo relacionadas fazem também parte da lista, tais como economia, econometria, finanças, ciências dos materiais entre outras.

Relativamente à produtividade dos autores que mais têm contribuído para a área em investigação percebemos que estes são relativamente produtivos, com uma média de 30 artigos, apesar da discrepância de produtividade entre eles – 12 dos 21 autores têm 10 ou mais artigos indexados na base de dados Scopus, 7 deles mais de 20 artigos e 2 (Gunther Reinhart com 238 e Mark Venables com 108) com mais de 100 artigos disponibilizados na Scopus.
Percebemos que para o grupo em questão os valores apresentados para os respetivos índices H são relativamente distintos. Oito dos autores têm um índice H menor ou igual a três, sete autores entre 4 e 6 e por fim destacam-se Patrick Dallasega com índice H de 8, Erwin Rauch e Jens Peter Wulfsberg com um índice H de 9, e uma vez mais no topo tabela Gunther Reinhart com índice H de 19.

Do presente grupo de autores o mais produtivo e influente é Gunther Reinhart, professor na faculdade de mecânica da Universidade Técnica de Munique (Technical University of Munich) e investigador essencialmente na área de tecnologia de montagem, automação e robótica, e ainda gestão de produção e logística. Reinhart é, desde Julho de 2016, presidente do Bavarian Cluster for Mechatronics and Automation, diretor executivo da Fraunhofer Research Institution for Casting, Composite and Processing Technology (IGCV) além de membro do conselho e conselheiro de várias empresas.

Nome do Autor Filiação Área de Estudos (Scopus) Número de documentos (artigos) na Scopus Índice h na Scopus Número de Citações (Scopus)
Reinhart, Gunther Technical University of Munich, Munich, GermanyEngenharia; Ciência da Computação; Negócios, Gestão e Contabilidade; Ciência da Decisão; Matemática; Ciência dos Materiais; Física e Astronomia; Energia; Engenharia Química; Ciências Sociais; Bioquímica, Genética e Biologia Molecular; Química 399 (238) 19 1487
Sanders, Adam Helmut Schmidt University – University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Institute of Production Engineering, Hamburg, Germany Engenharia; Ciência da Decisão; Negócios, Gestão e Contabilidade; Ciência dos Materiais; Física e Astronomia; Ciências Ambientais; Artes e Humanidades 7 (3) 2 17
Wulfsberg, Jens Peter Helmut Schmidt University – University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Institute of Production Engineering, Hamburg, GermanyEngenharia; Ciência de Materiais; Negócios, Gestão e Contabilidade; Ciência da Decisão; Física e Astronomia; Ciências Ambientais; Ciência da Computação; Ciências Sociais; Medicina 122 (47) 9 267
Tabela STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Tabela * ARABIC s 1 3 – Autores com pelo menos 3 artigos na base de dadosRede de coautoriacenter1130825Figura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 5 – Rede completa de coautoriaFigura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 5 – Rede completa de coautoriaAtravés da rede de coautoria apresentada, uma rede normalizada ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/asi”, “ISBN” : “9783848215430”, “ISSN” : “19335954”, “PMID” : “502955140”, “abstract” : “Academic librarians throughout higher education add value to the teaching and learning missions of their institutions though information literacy instruction. To demonstrate the full impact of librarians on students in higher education, librarians need comprehensive information literacy assessment plans, composed of instructional program-level and outcome-level components, that summarize the purpose of information literacy assessment, emphasize the theoretical basis of their assessment efforts, articulate specific information literacy goals and outcomes, describe the major assessment methods and tools used to capture evidence of student learning, report assessment results, and highlight improvements made as a consequence of learning assessment.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eck”, “given” : “Nees Jan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “van”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Waltman”, “given” : “Ludo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “8”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “1635-1651”, “title” : “How to Normalize Cooccurrence Data? An Analysis of SomeWell-Known Similarity Measures”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “60” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1e14543d-47a5-4d89-82bd-35c11f565c73” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2009b)”, “manualFormatting” : “(van Eck e Waltman, 2009b)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2009b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2009b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(van Eck e Waltman, 2009b) que posiciona nós numa rede bidimensional, é possível reconhecer a relação entre autores relacionando-o diretamente com o número de estudos que realizaram e publicaram conjuntamente ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/978-3-319-10377-8_13”, “ISBN” : “9783319103778”, “abstract” : “This chapter provides an introduction to the topic of visualizing bibliometric networks. First, the most commonly studied types of bibliometric networks (i.e., citation, co-citation, bibliographic coupling, keyword co-occurrence, and coauthorship networks) are discussed, and three popular visualization approaches (i.e., distance-based, graph-based, and timeline-based approaches) are distinguished. Next, an overview is given of a number of software tools that can be used for visualizing bibliometric networks. In the second part of the chapter, the focus is specifically on two software tools: VOSviewer and CitNetExplorer. The techniques used by these tools to construct, analyze, and visualize bibliometric networks are discussed. In addition, tutorials are offered that demonstrate in a step-by-step manner how both tools can be used. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of the limitations and the proper use of bibliometric network visualizations and with a summary of some ongoing and future developments.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eck”, “given” : “Nees Jan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “van”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Waltman”, “given” : “Ludo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Measuring Scholarly Impact”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “number-of-pages” : “285-320”, “title” : “Visualizing Bibliometric Networks”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4cc07c7f-280d-4cc9-bb3c-09126f3128d8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(van Eck e Waltman, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(van Eck e Waltman, 2014).
center43810600left4745355Fonte: VOSviewer
Cada autor é representado por um círculo – em proporção do seu número de artigos, e as cores determinam o cluster a que pertencem (com exceção do cinzento)
020000Fonte: VOSviewer
Cada autor é representado por um círculo – em proporção do seu número de artigos, e as cores determinam o cluster a que pertencem (com exceção do cinzento)

A Figura 4.5 apresenta as redes de coautoria presentes na base de dados, numa análise e elaboração de mapa que tem por unidade o autor, e através do método de contagem nomeado “full counting” onde cada ligação de coautoria tem exatamente o mesmo peso (por oposição a uma contagem fracionária). Na figura acima a dimensão dos círculos está diretamente relacionada com o número de artigos do autor em questão, nomeados na amostra – evidenciando-se Reinhart G., Sanders A. e Wulfsberg J. conforme seria de esperar pelo apresentado no ponto anterior. A presença de Wulfsberg é impercetível na Figura 4.5 por pertencer ao mesmo cluster que Sanders, que a este se sobrepõe, e demonstrando a ligação entre estes dois autores que se encontram filiados à mesma universidade (Helmut Schmidt University). Cada cor determina um cluster ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3402/jac.v8.30072”, “ISBN” : “0305-1862”, “ISSN” : “01389130”, “PMID” : “502955140”, “abstract” : “1 January 2013”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “Van”, “family” : “Eck”, “given” : “Nees Jan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Waltman”, “given” : “Ludo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “1 January 2013”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “January”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “1-28”, “title” : “VOSviewer Manual”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=19009824-de0a-438d-ade9-e0d661bdb379” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s11192-009-0146-3”, “ISBN” : “2175-1935”, “ISSN” : “01389130”, “PMID” : “20585380”, “abstract” : “We present VOSviewer, a freely available computer program that we have developed for constructing and viewing bibliometric maps. Unlike most computer programs that are used for bibliometric mapping, VOSviewer pays special attention to the graphical representation of bibliometric maps. The functionality of VOSviewer is especially useful for displaying large bibliometric maps in an easy-to-interpret way. The paper consists of three parts. In the first part, an overview of VOSviewer’s functionality for displaying bibliometric maps is provided. In the second part, the technical implementation of specific parts of the program is discussed. Finally, in the third part, VOSviewer’s ability to handle large maps is demonstrated by using the program to construct and display a co-citation map of 5,000 major scientific journals.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eck”, “given” : “Nees Jan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “van”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Waltman”, “given” : “Ludo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Scientometrics”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “523-538”, “title” : “Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “84” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f6636bfb-8931-404d-90d3-5f9826b51aaf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2010; Eck and Waltman, 2013)”, “manualFormatting” : “(van Eck e Waltman, 2010; van Eck e Waltman, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2010; Eck and Waltman, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(van Eck and Waltman, 2010; Eck and Waltman, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(van Eck e Waltman, 2010; van Eck e Waltman, 2013) e para esta construção admitimos qualquer autor pertencente à base de dados.

Dadas as caraterísticas da análise foram produzidos 127 clusters, o que demostra a dispersão ao nível de autoria dos artigos que constituem a nossa amostra. Os clusters que mais se destacam nesta rede são aqueles que têm mais nós, ou seja, onde mais autores colaboram entre si. Os clusters 1 e 2 são compostos por 9 itens cada um, onde se destacam Matternich J. e Reinhart G. para cada um dos clusters respetivamente, os clusters 3 e 4 compostos por 8 itens cada, sem qualquer destaque para algum autor especifico dentro de ambos os clusters, dado terem igual ponderação e importância, e por fim o cluster 5 com 7 itens também sem especial destaque para alguma autoria. Entre o cluster 6 e o 86 o número de autores varia entre 6 e 2, e para os restantes (do cluster 87 ao 127) encontramos autores isolados, isto é, autores que não partilham autoria com nenhum dos restantes pertencentes à rede.

Contudo, quando restringimos a nossa análise apenas a itens conectados entre si, ou seja, autores de diferentes artigos que continuam a partilhar uma rede de coautoria obtemos a Figura 4.6, um mapa com apenas 9 itens interligados que constituem 2 clusters (o vermelho e o verde) e onde a dimensão dos círculos é diretamente proporcional à quantidade de ligações do autor.

left2915494Fonte: VOSviewer
Cada autor é representado por um círculo – em proporção do número de ligações do autor, e as cores determinam o cluster a que pertencem (com exceção do cinzento)
00Fonte: VOSviewer
Cada autor é representado por um círculo – em proporção do número de ligações do autor, e as cores determinam o cluster a que pertencem (com exceção do cinzento)
31242037528500center463Figura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 6 – Rede de ligações de coautoriaFigura STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figura * ARABIC s 1 6 – Rede de ligações de coautoriaUma vez mais, a saliência é detida por Reinhart G (que se encontra no cluster 2 com apenas 3 itens) apresentando ligações com todos os restantes autores. Estas ligações são fruto de três artigos: “OpenServ4P – Open, inteligente services for production system” de Berger C., Huber J., Klöber-Koch J., Schreiber M., Braunreuther S., Richter, C. e Reinhart, G. (2016); “Cyber-physical systems as field of action” de Reinhart G., Klöber-Koch J. e Braunreuther, S.; e ainda “Development trends for the production work of tomorrow” de Vernim S., Wehrle P. e Reinhart G. Com dois dos autores Reinhart G. partilha 2 ligações de coautoria – Braunreuther e Klöber-Koch – ambos filiados à “Fraunhofer Research Institution for Casting, Composite and Processing Technology IGCV” onde Reinhart é um dos responsáveis pela gestão.

Assim, apesar da dispersão de autoria apresentada na Figura 4.5 podemos também considerar que o núcleo mais relevante ao nível da coautoria tem predominantemente a mesma fonte e proveniência geográfica – a revista alemã “ZWF Zeitschrift Fuer Wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb”, apresentada no ponto 2 deste capítulo como a principal contribuinte da nossa amostra, aonde foram publicados qualquer um dos artigos apresentado.