In UNIX

In UNIX, each individual I/O device is associated with a special file. These are managed by the file system and are read and written in the same manner as user data files. This provides a clean, uniform interface to users and processes. To read from or write to a device, read and write requests are made for the special file associated with the device. There are two types of I/O in UNIX: buffered and unbuffered. Buffered I/O passes through system buffers, whereas unbuffered I/O typically involves the DMA facility, with the transfer taking place directly between the I/O module and the process I/O area. For buffered I/O, two types of buffers are used: system buffer caches and character queues.