Impact of Parenting Styles on Children
Impact of Parenting Styles on Children
There are four types of basic parenting styles. Authoritative style, authoritarian, permissive, and neglecting-uninvolved. Parents with the authoritative style are both highly responsive and highly demanding (Broderick ; Blewitt). Authoritarian parents are low on responsiveness, but highly demanding (Broderick ; Blewitt). Permissive parents are moderately to highly responsive to their children, but low on demandingness (Broderick ; Blewitt). “Some parents are both low on responsiveness and low on demandingness, so that they actually invest little time or attention in a child and are largely parent centered in their concerns. Like permissive parents, neglecting-uninvolved parents seem to neglect their responsibility to socialize the child, but they also express less affection and are not likely to be responsive to their children’s needs, perhaps even expressing hostility or making negatives attributions to their children (Broderick & Blewitt).
How you respond to and discipline your children greatly affects how they develop, both cognitively and socially. A child’s development process is influenced by a mixture of all the stimuli he meets, both with individuals and with his environment (https://www.livestrong.com/article/541560-the-impact-of-parenting-styles-on-childrens-development/). There have been small correlations between parenting styles and the outcome of the child.
Authoritative parenting styles have been associated with many positive outcomes in young children: adaptability, competence and achievement, good social skills and peer acceptance, and low levels of antisocial or aggressive behavior (Broderick & Blewitt). The authoritative parenting styles seems to be the best parenting option for great child outcomes. “This parenting style is most often associated with positive adolescent outcomes and has been found to be the most effective and beneficial style of parenting among most families (Hoskins, 2014). Adolescents with authoritative parents are less prone to externalizing behaviors, and specifically are less likely to engage in drug use than individuals with uninvolved parents (Hoskins, 2014). Parents that practice an authoritative parenting style seem to have more successful children. As the child gets older the parent will slowly “let go” to encourage independence.
Children that come from an authoritarian household are more likely to be irritable and conflicted, showing signs of both anxiety and anger. According to the text, these children are more prone to bullying and are not skilled socially. They are also likely to have low self-esteem. They can also lack self-control when their authority figures are not present (Broderick ; Blewitt). Authoritarian parents exhibit low levels of trust and engagement toward their child, discourage open communication, and engage in strict control (Hoskins, 2014).
“Permissive parents are more likely to have children who exhibit uncontrolled, impulsive behavior and low levels of self-reliance (Hoskins, 2014).” These children tend to be low cognitively and socially. They seem highly aggressive in family interactions (Broderick ; Blewitt). Adolescents from permissive families report a higher frequency of substance use, school misconduct, and are less engaged and less positively oriented to school compared to individuals from authoritative or authoritarian families (Hoskins). Permissive parenting is also associated with low self-esteem and extrinsic motivational orientation among adolescents (Hoskins). Permissive parents invoke such phrases as, “sure, you can stay up late if you want to,” and “you do not need to do any chores if you don’t feel like it.” Permissive parents do not like to say no or disappoint their children (Kopko).
Uninvolved parents are indifferent to their adolescent’s needs, whereabouts, or experiences at school or with peers (Kopko). The uninvolved parenting style has the most negative effects on their children. Uninvolved parents fail to monitor their children. For example, researchers found an association between an uninvolved parenting style and delinquent acts ranging from vandalism and petty theft to assault and rape (Hoskins).
Faith & Professional Perspectives
The bible has many references to parenting styles. There are several verses suggesting how one should raise their children. “Train up a child in the way he should go; even when he is old he will not depart from it (Proverbs 22:6).” This verse is saying that one should teach their child the way they should live their lives, and they will remember it always. This verse can be linked to authoritative parenting styles. Another very popular biblical verse pertaining to parenting would be from Proverbs 13:24 “He who spares the rod hates his son, but he who loves him is careful to discipline him.” There are a lot of references to how one should bring up their child from the bible.
It is important for human service workers to know how their clients were brought up (parenting style). I think it is important to know the parenting styles of one’s client was raised because it can help us further understand that person. How they were raised could have a huge impact on how they are acting now and could help us figure out the root cause of their problem.
This article could help clients understand parenting styles. It could help them learn about their own personal parenting styles and maybe even help them change the way they parent. It could also provide them with information about how they were raised. This article will create a better understanding of the different parenting styles.
Any clients seeking a parenting class to help them improve the way they parent and educate them better on parenting I would suggest a local parenting class. In Columbus, Ms we have the Families first resource center.
Broderick, P.C., Blewitt, B. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.) New York, NY. Pearson Education.
FamiliesFirst for MS | Columbus. (n.d.). Retrieved July 21, 2018, from https://www.familiesfirstforms.org/columbusHoskins, D. (2014). Consequences of Parenting on Adolescent Outcomes. Societies,4(3), 506-531. doi:10.3390/soc4030506
Kopko, K. (2007). Parenting Styles and Adolescents. https://www.human.cornell.edu/sites/default/files/PAM/Parenting/Parenting-20Styles-20and-20Adolescents.pdf