TOC o “1-3” h z u CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc525056671 h 11.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525056672 h 11.1 Background of study PAGEREF _Toc525056673 h 21.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc525056674 h 51.3 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc525056675 h 71.4 Research Objectives PAGEREF _Toc525056676 h 71.5 Scope of Study PAGEREF _Toc525056677 h 81.6 Significant of Study PAGEREF _Toc525056678 h 91.7 Terms of Reference PAGEREF _Toc525056679 h 101.8 Summary PAGEREF _Toc525056680 h 11CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE PAGEREF _Toc525056681 h 142.0 Overview PAGEREF _Toc525056682 h 142.1 Theoretical Framework PAGEREF _Toc525056683 h 142.2 Dependant variable PAGEREF _Toc525056684 h 152.2.1 Career Success PAGEREF _Toc525056685 h 152.3 Independent variable PAGEREF _Toc525056686 h 162.3.1 Perceived Organizational Support PAGEREF _Toc525056687 h 172.3.2 Proactive Behaviour PAGEREF _Toc525056688 h 182.3.3 Social Capital PAGEREF _Toc525056689 h 192.3.4 Career Adaptability PAGEREF _Toc525056690 h 202.4 Relationship between independent variables and dependent variable PAGEREF _Toc525056691 h 212.4.1 Perceived Organizational Support and Career Success PAGEREF _Toc525056692 h 212.4.2 Proactive Behaviour and career success PAGEREF _Toc525056693 h 222.4.3 Social Capital and Career Success PAGEREF _Toc525056694 h 232.4.4 Career Adaptability and Career Success PAGEREF _Toc525056695 h 242.5 Summary PAGEREF _Toc525056696 h 25CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc525056697 h 273.0 Overview PAGEREF _Toc525056698 h 273.1 Development of research framework PAGEREF _Toc525056699 h 273.2 Hypothesis Development PAGEREF _Toc525056700 h 28
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.0 IntroductionCareer is a developing sequence of a person’s experiences in working environment. It does not need required a person to have a professional job, occupational stability or upward mobility to have a career.CITATION Jun14 l 17417 (June M. L. Poon, Jon P. Briscoe, Rohayu Abdul- Ghani, ; Eric A. Jones, 2014) The desire of accumulated positive and psychological outcomes from work experiences show a career success to a person. CITATION Ste14 l 17417 (Stumpf, 2014) However, persons in nowadays like to keep changing their job. As we know in general, they keep changing their job to try for seeking a better job to them. The definition of a “better” job might be different belong with different persons. These “better” job may include a variety of factors such as nature of work, salary received, stress level, working conditions, relationship with colleagues, superiors and even working hours.CITATION Dan13 l 2052 (Bakotic ; Babic, 2013)
Career success is recognized into two categories, which are objective and subjective career success. The objective career success is defined as external component, which means that it can directly be observed, measured and verified by third party. On the other hand, the subjective career (internal component) is only experienced by the person engaged in his or her career. CITATION Pet05 l 2052 (Heslin P. , 2005) In another words, objective career can be defined through the salary received, promotions and the occupational status while the subjective career can be measured with the employees’ job, career, and life satisfaction level. CITATION Sha36 l 2052 (Ishak, 2015)In this research, the career success among employees from the lowest level till top level in fast food restaurant will be studied. The employees’ perception on their career will be looking at and investigate the factors that affect them to decide for their success in career. Other than the employees, the employers are also be targeted to the purpose on this study. This research may lead more employers understand the perception of the employees toward their career path.
1.1 Background of study
As an explanation further to the fast food restaurant, there are more than 1,000 fast food outlets throughout in Malaysia CITATION Foo16 l 17417 (Abdul Ghani Wahab ; Agricultural Specialist, 2016). The most of the fast food restaurants are dominated by the American fast food franchises. For instance, it included Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), McDonald’s, A&W, Burger King and etc.
At present, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) is the largest franchisor in fast food restaurant in Malaysia. They began with their first restaurant in Malaysia at Jalan Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kuala Lumpur in the year of 1973. There are currently over 600 Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants in nationwide of MalaysiaCITATION KFC18 l 17417 (“The KFC Malaysia story began”, 2018). The second larger fast food franchiser in Malaysia is McDonald’s. There are more than 260 restaurants in nationwide in Malaysia. They serves also over 13.5 million customers a month. It is not surprising that the fast food industry generates billion of Ringgit Malaysia in annual sales in Malaysia and it is a multimillion dollar industry in Malaysia CITATION Chi12 l 17417 (Chia Seng, Woon Xin, Yuet Tong, ; Yun Chin, 2012). Besides that, McDonald’s employs more than 12,000 Malaysians in its restaurants across the nation and provides career, training and development opportunities to its employees CITATION Abo16 l 2052 (“McDonald’s is the world’s”, 2016).
Figure 1 shows the general of career path in fast food restaurant. Beginning in most fast food restaurants as a crew person. Employees can advance to the position of shift leader, then going up to assistant manager and finally to manager. As an entry level employees who is performing well on the job, showing leadership qualities and initiative and having a commitment to their work will be promoted within the restaurants where they are working to. Most of the trainers or instructors crew and shift leaders are been paid in hourly. In the some chart, the position of assistant manager is also an hourly. However, both assistant managers and restaurant managers are monthly paid employees in the majority of restaurantsCITATION Fas l 2052 (“Fast food jobs”, n.d.).
Figure 1: Career path in fast food restaurant
This figure is a general information only to show the career path towards the all brand name of fast food restaurants. This is because there are different career position in different brands of restaurant and even to the chain of restaurant. For example, the career path in Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) is found with the arrangement of Rider, Restaurant Crew, Assistant Restaurant Manager (Trainee), Assistant Restaurant Manager and Restaurant Manager CITATION KFC l 17417 (KFC Malaysia, n.d.). Another example come from our national fast food restaurant, MarryBrown. It shows that the career path started from team member, crew leader, supervisor, management trainee, assistant restaurant manager and restaurant manager CITATION Mar l 17417 (MarryBrown, n.d.). Thus, it is given a strong evidence to show that there is vary to every brand of fast food restaurants for their own management.
The duties and responsibilities of employees in each level is clearly stated in company manuals. In the of crew trainer, their duties are to perform the same risk as crew members and also have the responsibility of give training to new hourly employees. In additionally, the employees who work at this level will be given an advance to build knowledge through attending on-the-job training of a shift leader’s job and do bits and pieces of this job CITATION Fas l 17417 (“Fast food jobs”, n.d.).
While to the shift leader, the employees will work in shift as the name suggests. Their major responsibility is to manage and plan the employees on a shift. Besides, they may also have to assume the responsibility for the restaurant when the assistant manager or manager is not in the restaurant. Additionally, the shift leader need also to advise their managers of any problems regarding with personnel, products, supplies, equipment or customers on their shifts. They have also such task as opening or closing restaurants, making time schedule for every employees for duty, recording inventory and working at station. If there is a situation that the restaurant does not have crew trainers, then, the shift leader will often train the new employees. However, it spend time to promise a shift leaders to learn how to handle the assistant manager position CITATION Fas l 17417 (“Fast food jobs”, n.d.). In other words, it will take time to promote shift leader to the assistant manager level.
Fast food restaurants promote their employees more often in the stage of entry level. Therefore, the opportunity to advance is provided for the entry level employees who wants to move up to a more responsible position. However, the time taken to advance from one to another level depends not only on the beginning employees’ ability but also on the need within the restaurant or chain for employees at each level. There are no obstruct and fast rules to be promoted in a fast food restaurant. It could take six months to one year for a crew member to become a trainer and from six months to two years or more to become a shift leader from crew member. It shows that the evaluation process is usually quite formal in the fast food restaurants CITATION Fas l 17417 (“Fast food jobs”, n.d.).
On the duties and responsibilities of fast food workers, as it is advance within a restaurant, the employees’ responsibilities increase and their duties change based on their level. The employees is required to do at each level id often stated specifically in the company manuals. However, the duties and responsibilities of actual employees will vary not only between the chains but also within chains and even in individual restaurants. Virtually, the employees are usually receiving training that will help them advance to the next level as they are working at one level CITATION Fas l 2052 (“Fast food jobs”, n.d.). Yet, the occupational mobility within this industry is extremely limited. As a comparison to other industries, the fast food industry has a lower percentage which is 2.2% of employees only on the managerial stage CITATION MiJ13 l 2052 (MiJin, 2013).
1.2 Problem StatementNowadays, organizations that want to sustain their competitive advantage should be aware of the importance of “career” in their workforce. Traditional career types have disappearing and turning into protean career. Therefore, understanding and creating new approaches to achieve the perception career success among the employees is a vital mission for the organizations which want to survive and compete for a long time CITATION Gul14 l 17417 (Gulsha , 2014).
The perception of the employees in fast food restaurant towards career success will be the main element to this study. Due to the rapid growth in fast food industry, understanding the factors that affect employees’ career success is important for organizations seeking to develop motivated and competent workforces. However, there are not much of researches has been done in the area of fast food restaurant industry. Besides that, there is also a recent issue found that the employees of one of the well-known fast food restaurants in United States demonstrated on street with the dissatisfied of having sexual harassment from their supervisors. It shows the employees’ right are not be taken important to the organization. Thus, this research will focus on the anticipant of perceived organizational support to study whether the employees’ welfare in fast food restaurants in Melaka are taken note from the organization.
Moreover, there is a research gap in location study also on this topic. Based on the researchers, Yao, Jeou Shyan, Shu Yun and Letitia stated that the limitation of researching is that their study in career success towards the food and beverage employees was only applicable to the area of Taiwan. Therefore, the results given cannot be apply to the other countries. They suggested also to the future researchers to extend the research to a cross-cultural study to compare Food and Beverages employees’ career success with other countries CITATION Yao11 l 2052 (Yao Fen, Jeou Shyan, Shu Yun (Sophie), ; Letitia Killman, 2011).
Furthermore, the researcher of “Career Commitment and Career Success: Mediating Role of Career Satisfaction” suggested future researchers need to re-look at the meaning of subjective career success and assess whether it is a construct or is a measure of career success. The advised also that the nature of subjective career success as well as the causal relationship between different objective and subjective career outcomes needs to be explored at greater depth. Based on the observations of researchers, they suggested the future studies can measure impact of the variables using a rival model CITATION PBS121 l 17417 (P.B ; D., 2012).
Apart from that, Osman M. Karatepe with the title of Perceived organizational support, career satisfaction and performance outcomes: A study of hotel employees in Cameroon also stated that testing the indirect influence of perceived organizational support on extra-role performance through career success in future studies would add to the current knowledge base in the hospitality management and marketing literature. The researcher also advised future research can state other dimensions to predict the career success. It would be useful for assessing the full mediating role of career success in the relationship between human resource practices and performance outcomes CITATION Osm12 l 17417 (Osman, 2012).
According to the previous research, Seibert, Crant and Kraimer (1999) stated that proactive individuals will be more approached to their jobs and careers differently than the less proactive people. The behaviour of proactive involved creating changes, not merely anticipating it CITATION Sco99 l 2052 (Scott E., J. Michael , ; Maria L., 1999). To be proactive is to take the initiative in improving their working environment. On the other hands, behaviour that is not proactive includes sitting back and letting others to try for making things happen. It affects directly to the organizational success and employees’ career success with the behaviour of proactive CITATION Bat99 l 2052 (Bateman & Crant, 1999). This both researchers were shown the result that the proactive behaviour affect the career success among employees. Besides that, one of the researchers, Scott, Maria and Michael (2001) with the title of “What do proactive people do? A longitudinal model linking proactive personality and career success” recommended the future researchers to expand the proactive behaviour throughout other samples CITATION Sco011 l 17417 (Scott, Maria, & Michael, 2001). This is because their sample was only focus on Caucasian. Therefore, this variable will be tested and discuss further on the following chapter.
1.3 Research QuestionsResearch question is an answerable inquiry towards a specific issues. It is the initial step for the research study. In other words, the research question can become a guideline for the researchers to have an idea of what indicators want to study. There are the questions will be taking part from this research. Whether the factors have the relationship towards the career success of employees in fast food restaurant.
(a) Is there any relationship between Perceived organizational support and Career Success among fast food restaurants’ employees?
(b) Is there any relationship between Proactive behaviour and Career Success among fast food restaurants’ employees?
(c) Is there any relationship between Social capital and Career Success among fast food restaurants’ employees?
(d) Is there any relationship between Career adaptability and Career Success among fast food restaurants’ employees?
1.4 Research Objectives
Research objectives can be defined as to clarifying with thinking more detail about the research study. Normally, the research objectives are found after the formation of research questions. It helps to build a strong standard to the researchers about which category wanted to study for the research. The aim for this study is to determine the factors affected career success towards employees in fast food restaurants.
(a) To study the relationship between Perceived organizational support and Career Success among fast food restaurants’ employees.
(b) To study the relationship between Proactive behaviour and Career Success among fast food restaurants’ employees.
(c) To study the relationship between Social capital and Career Success among fast food restaurants’ employees.
(d) To study the relationship between Career adaptability and Career Success among fast food restaurants’ employees.
1.5 Scope of StudyThe career success among the employees should be taking in important to every sectors in the economy. This is due to the fact that it shows an entire employee have a positive emotional and performance on their career. It can also become a guideline to the entire organization about their employees’ perception towards career success. It should be taken important because the employees’ personnel performance have a direct affect to the organization performance. However, it is every time consuming and difficult to approach every single sectors in the economy. Besides that, it is also costly to have a survey throughout the whole Malaysia.
In order to avoid the problem stated at above, the scope of study is force to form. It is not only can save time and cost involved but also help to get a more accurate results. Therefore, this research will study on the employees who work in fast food industry on different position level. With means that the covered study for this research will from the position of crews to the operation managers in fast food industry. This is due to the fact that the perception of employees in every single level should take note and look into it. Different level and department of employees may have a different perception towards their career success. It may be helpful as to study deeply whether the level of the employees affect their perception in career success. The fast food restaurants will be conducted in the area of Melaka, such as Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), McDonald’s, Marry brown, Subways, Pizza Hut and Domino’s Pizza.
1.6 Significant of StudyTo this research, it can help the employees himself / herself to evaluate their career success. They have an opportunity to measure the content of their job through the survey. This is because people tend to work towards the materialistic nowadays. They may think more in getting a higher salary or position as represented that they are success in their career. This report will give an awareness to the employees, especially in fast food industry that whether the career they anticipated are going in the correct path. If not, the changes are necessary to them.
Besides that, the employers can also refer this study for understand more about the perception of the employees toward their career path. This is due to the fast growing speed in fast food industry, the performance of the firm will be influenced by the employees CITATION Chi12 l 17417 (Chia Seng, Woon Xin, Yuet Tong, & Yun Chin, 2012). In order to improve firm performance, the organization required to take note on the employees’ performance. This is because a positive perception on the employees’ career will affect to the outcome of them.
In general, the definition of career success is very personal. There has a different perception among the employees. However, it is very important to define a successful career because a positive outcome in career occurred while he /she enjoy their success.
1.7 Terms of ReferenceThere are the main key terms that discuss in this research.
Key Terms Definition Source
Career Success “Career Success may be defined as the accomplishment of desirable work-related outcomes at any point in a person’s work experiences over time.” CITATION Mic05 l 2052 (Michale B. Arthur, Svetlana N. Khapova, & Celeste P.M. Wilderom, 2005)Fast Food Restaurant “With its suggestion of serving food in speed, standardization, and the homogenization of taste.” CITATION Ric95 l 2052 (Fantasia, 1995)Perceived Organizational Support “Highlights employees’ subjective perception of organizational support for their career development and the extent to which they have access to these career development opportunities.” CITATION Yan15 l 2052 (Yanjun, WenXia, Lihui, Peng Jiang, & Yinxin, 2015)Proactive Behaviour “An individual proactivity or self-starting, future-oriented behaviour that aims to bring about change in one’s self or the situation.” CITATION Uta09 l 17417 (Utan K. & Sharon K., 2009)Social Capital “The scope of resources that an individual is able to access through social networks formed with other individuals.” CITATION Can17 l 2052 (Canan Yildirim Demirkiran & Mehmet Gencer, 2017)Career Adaptability “Constitutes a psychosocial resource that can help employees to effectively manage career changes and challenges, and thus facilitates employees’ fit with their work environment.” CITATION Han l 2052 (Hanne Zacher, Rodolfo A.M. Ambiel, & Ana Paula Porto Noronha, 2015)1.8 Summary
Figure 2: Structure of research
Chapter 1: Introduction
Discussing about the background of the topic research. Besides that, a basic concept of this study is also stated in this chapter, such as the area of study and significant of study. The purpose of the research, the research gap of previous finding, research questions and research objectives are also included in this chapter.
Chapter 2: Review of Literature
In this chapter, the findings of previous journal studies will be discussed. Some related theories and results is contained in this part. It makes readers to more understand about the basic concept of the research topic. Moreover, this chapter will also discuss about the dependant and four independent variables that related to the topic.
Chapter 3: Methodology
The methods of collecting data will be discussed in this chapter. Furthermore, the ways of analysing and collection process data is also involved. The hypothesis is also be made in this chapter of researching.
Chapter 4: Results and Discussion
The results of finding will be discussed in this chapter. We are focusing in using the SPSS version 25 software to interpret the outcomes from the targeted samplings.
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation
The conclusion made according to the results shown in the previous chapter. The proposals for future research and recommendation provided to other researchers who have the intention to do a research for this area.
As a conclusion, even though the employment increases in the foods and beverages services and even to the high speed growing of fast food restaurant are needed to be pleased for as it leads more labour force in Malaysia in the employed status and it helps also to grow up Malaysian economy. However, it might be a concern that the perception of the employees who work in this industry. The perception of employees are needed to take important to while the employees are the persons who help the organization for better performance. They become the company images and show the entire organization culture also. Therefore, the career success of employees need to be taken in careful. At the next chapter, we will discuss about the related theories for this research in deeply. Moreover, the factors of affecting the employees toward their career success will also be discussed.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE2.0 OverviewThis chapter will focus to the research variables. The past studies and the definition of the variables will be looked at and discussed. The research hypothesis will be proposed based on this literature review. The research of independent variables involved in this topic are perceived organizational support, proactive behaviour, social capital and career adaptability.
2.1 Theoretical FrameworkSocial cognitive career theory (SCCT) was defined to explain how individuals form career interests, set vocational goals, persist in work environment and obtain career success CITATION Mar09 l 2052 (Mary E Kelly, 2009). This theory incorporates a variety of concepts such as interests, abilities, values and environmental factors that appear in earlier career theories and have been found to affect career development. According to the developed by Lent, Brown and Hackett in 1994, social cognitive career theory is an influential theory of cognitive and motivational processes that has been extended from Albert Bandura’s general social cognitive theory as to further study of many area of psychosocial functioning. For instance, it is involved academic performance, health behaviour and organizational developmentCITATION Len06 l 2052 (Lent ; Brown, 2006). This study examines whether perceived organizational support, proactive behaviour, social capital and career adaptability can predict the perception of career success towards employees of fast food restaurants in the context of social cognitive career theory model.
Figure 3: Social Cognitive Career Theory CITATION Len13 l 2052 (Lent ; Brown, 2013)2.2 Dependant variableDependent variable can be defined as consequent. It is the variable that will be influenced by the independent variable. However, it is only be affected with the related independent variable. If the relationship with the independent and dependent variable shows positive or negative result, it means that it has a relationship between the dependent and independent variable. In other words, the dependent variable is affected positively or negatively from independent variable. Thus, there is no relationship while the result shows zero effect to the relationship between dependent and independent variable.
2.2.1 Career SuccessCareer success can be defined as the accumulated positive emotional and working outcomes resulting from working experiences CITATION Tho05 l 2052 (Thomas W. H. Ng, Lillian T. EBY, Kelly L. Sorensen, ; Daniel C. Feldman, 2005). It can also be recognized as the desired outcomes or accumulated achievements, either real or perceived or both of them, which result from these work-related experiences constitute career success CITATION Jun15 l 17417 (June M. L, Jon P. , Rohayu , ; Eric A., 2015). The previous researchers often managed the career success into two ways.
The first included the factor of objective or extrinsic measurement CITATION Jud95 l 2052 (Judge TA, Cable DM, Boudreau JW, ; Bretz RD, 1995) . Judge (1995) claimed that the objective or extrinsic career success can be seen as it evaluated objectively at their career, such as salary and number of promotion in one of their career CITATION Jud95 l 17417 (Judge TA, Cable DM, Boudreau JW, ; Bretz RD, 1995). In other words, objective career success was an external measurement towards the career. The second measurement for career success is subjective or intrinsic factor. Subjective career success was typically an individual appraisal of career development which referring to an individual’s perceived and personal standards, such as job and life satisfaction, work life balance, career satisfaction and having opportunities to fulfil one’s achievement. It included the perception of career satisfaction, achievement and confidence in future. Employees who perceive career success will have an attitudes of greater satisfaction, produce higher commitment and job involvement. Thus, the productivity of an organization will match or exceed the expectation of organizations CITATION Yao11 l 17417 (Yao Fen, Jeou Shyan, Shu Yun (Sophie), ; Letitia Killman, 2011).
2.3 Independent variableIndependent variable recognized as antecedent. It manipulates the values of the dependent variable when it is an active variable. As discussed at the previous section, there is an active independent variable to the dependent variable while the relationship shown is positive or negative. The zero effect shows there is no any relationship between the consequent and antecedent.
2.3.1 Perceived Organizational SupportPerceived organizational refers to the employees concern about their contribution are valued by the organization and the organization cares about their well-being CITATION YuC10 l 2052 (Yu, 2010). The social exchange theory can be used to explain the reciprocal effect between employees and employers. Employees tend to continue their effective performance as to repay benefits and opportunities provided by the organization when they find out that the organizational supports them CITATION Osm12 l 2052 (Osman, 2012).
This perceived organizational is not only include work based factors such as job support, but also the factors which reflect life support and general feeling of well-being such as caring benefit and value fit CITATION YuC10 l 2052 (Yu, 2010). According to Chen (2011), the combination of career values, perceived organizational support and career success can benefit employees towards successful career outcomes, and organizations CITATION Ade17 l 17417 (Adel Ali Yassin, 2017).
Dr. Eisenberger claimed that perceived organizational support began with the observation that if managers are concerned to their employees’ commitment to the organization, the employees are focus on the organization’s commitment to them. Perceived organizational support increases employees’ felt obligation to help the organization to reach its goals with their affective commitment to the organization and their expectation that the performance will be rewarded. The behaviour outcome of perceived organization support to increase the performance of employees and decrease in withdrawal behaviours such as absenteeism and turnover CITATION Eis18 l 17417 (Eisenberger, 2018). In the previous study, Eisenberger found that perceived organizational support is positively related to opportunities for greater recognition and pay and even to promotion. Generally, the perceived organizational support may come from the supervisor or other senior managers. From the support of supervisors, it can affect individuals’ willingness to engage in development action and performance and career success. (Yu, 2010)
2.3.2 Proactive BehaviourProactive behaviour is a subjective indicator towards career success. It is typically defined as a continuously with the aim to influence either oneself or the internal organizational environment or both of them CITATION Sab11 l 17417 (Anne ; Sabine, 2011). This behaviour is related to increasing of individual and organizational performance, such as overall performance, career-related outcomes, sales and organizational success CITATION Ann10 l 17417 (Anne, Proactive Work Behaviour, 2010).
Seibert, Crant and Kraimer (1999) stated that proactive individuals will be more approached to their jobs and careers differently than the less proactive people. Proactive individuals tend to select and create environments that enhance a high levels of job performance. They would like to engage in career management activities such as seeking out job and organizational information, obtaining organizational support and conducting career planning CITATION Sco99 l 2052 (Scott E., J. Michael , ; Maria L., 1999).
The behaviour of proactive involved creating changes, not merely anticipating it. To be proactive is to take the initiative in improving their working environment. On the other hands, behaviour that is not proactive includes sitting back and letting others to try for making things happen CITATION Bat99 l 17417 (Bateman ; Crant, 1999). Proactivity also applies in other areas, for example, individuals can be more or less proactive in managing their careers, changing their work environment and coping with stress. As an example, personal initiative is a form of proactive behaviour while it involves going beyond assigned tasks with developing one’s own goals and attempting to solve problems that have not yet occurred CITATION Uta09 l 17417 (Utan K. & Sharon K., 2009).
However, not all of the changes occurred are truly defined as proactive behaviour. First, change can be evoked unintentionally, for negative as well as positive outcome. This cannot be a proactive behaviour. Second, people can engage in cognitive restructuring by psychologically reframing or reinterpreting situations, for instance, when mangers deny the existence of real problems. Third, people make a decisions to leave and enter situations, as when they are offered with new job or enter to a new markets CITATION Bat99 l 17417 (Bateman & Crant, 1999).
2.3.3 Social CapitalOne definition is that “social capital consists of the typical of active connections among people, it included trust, mutual understanding, shared values and behaviours, formed human networks and communities.” CITATION Kev16 l 17417 (Kevin, 2016) In an organization, social capital refers to features of a social organization such as information, trust and norms of reciprocity in one’s social network CITATION YiN11 l 17417 (Yi Ning, 2011).
Social capital is important as the traditional human capital, such as skills, knowledges and experience of employees, for individual career progression and for the organization as well. For examples, the social capital is a key element for cooperation, collaboration and knowledge sharing CITATION Kev16 l 17417 (Kevin, 2016). Individuals or groups exchange social capital to gain access to required resources from others in social system or to enhance image through social system. In the business environment, the social capital helps to have a greater number of promotions and salary increases CITATION Ani l 17417 (“An inclusive understanding”, n.d.).
There are two key concept in social capital which are social trust and social network. Social trust can be investigated as the individual who is developed through social relationships. Fukuyama (1995) argued that the most effective groups and organization are those with the highest level of trust or social capital. On the other hand, the social network existed while the relationship between and among persons are formed and extends even more to the position CITATION YiN11 l 17417 (Yi Ning, 2011). The framework of knowing-why, knowing-how and knowing-whom can be used to measure the value of social capital towards career success.
A constructive feedback from others enhance the competency of knowing-why that can be obtained with the use of social capital. One of the example to describe knowing-how is social learning which using social capital to get closer relationship to develop job related capabilities. Social capital buys access to relevant people, as known as knowing-whom. It presents access to opportunities as well as resources and information for personal skill development and decision making CITATION Ani l 2052 (“An inclusive understanding”, n.d.).
2.3.4 Career AdaptabilityCareer adaptability constitutes a psychological resource that can help employees to manage career changes and challenges effectively and thus facilities employees’ fit with their work environment CITATION Han15 l 17417 (Hannes, Rodolfo A.M., & Ana Paula Porto, 2015). Career adaptability is defined as propensity to deal with developmental or changes tasks. In other words, it helps an individual to get prepare for and participate in working roles while unexpected changes in the job market and in working conditionsCITATION Lau15 l 17417 (Laura, Maria Cristina , & Salvatore, 2012).
Career adaptability consists of four dimensions which are career concern (predicting future possibilities and preparing for those possibilities), career control (making decisions and taking action), career curiosity (exploring various situations and problems) and career confidence (dealing with barriers and threats). Among the study of career adaptability, career concern leads employees to foresee and prepare for future opportunities; career control readies employees to make actions in achieving their career goals; career curiosity disposes employees to collect relevant data and information for their career development; career confidence sustains employees’ effort in adapting with difficulties in their vocation. As a result, the employees will achieve a higher salaries and perceive a greater career success while they have a high level of career adaptability CITATION YGu15 l 17417 (Y, 2015).
2.4 Relationship between independent variables and dependent variable2.4.1 Perceived Organizational Support and Career SuccessAccording to Guan, Zhou, Ye, Jiang and Zhou (2015), employees found that their perceived organizational become positive effects on the objective indicators of career success, such as salary progression and promotion while organization provides the resource and opportunities for employees to develop their careersCITATION Yan15 l 2052 (Yanjun, WenXia, Lihui, Peng Jiang, ; Yinxin, 2015).
According to the study of “The relationships among perceived organizational support, intention to remain, career success and self-esteem in Chinese male nurses”, with authors Liu, Yang, Yang and Liu (2015), the result shown a relationship between perceived organization support and career success. The Cronbach’s Alpha () of the total scale was 0.787, which means that this study has a strong reliability. With the correlation analysis among perceived organizational support, intention to remain, career success and self-esteem, it found that it has R-value of 0.662, p<0.01 between perceived organizational support and career success. In conclusion of authors, they found that perceived organizational support was positively associated to career success CITATION Jin15 l 2052 (Jing-ying, Ji-peng, Yang, & Yan-hui, 2015).
Other researcher, Yu Chen (2010) with the title of “Career Success of Knowledge Workers: The effects of perceived organizational support and person-job fit” found that the career success (r= 0.61, p< 0.001) exhibit a strong relationship with perceived organizational support. They concluded that there will be a positive relationship between perceived organizational support and career success. Knowledge workers who perceive high levels of organizational support will show a greater career success than to those who perceived less support CITATION YuC10 l 2052 (Yu, 2010).
One of the research found also a positive relationship between perceived organizational support and career success. It involved 210 respondents in this study. With other related result, the study shows that 61% (r²= 0.61, F= 105.40, p<0.01) of the variance in work engagement was significantly explained by career commitment, career value and organizational support. The regression analysis shown that organization support was positively associated with career success with the result of (= 0.23, p<0.01) CITATION Ade17 l 2052 (Adel Ali Yassin, 2017).
2.4.2 Proactive Behaviour and career successReferring to the previous study, the proactive behaviour is positively related to objective (salary and promotion) and subjective (career satisfaction) indicators of career success CITATION BoS14 l 17417 (Bo & Zi Jing, 2014).
According to the study of “Proactive Personality and Career Success” with author Crant and Kraimer (1999), they set two hypothesis which are (1) H1, there will be a positively relationship between individual’s proactive personality and objective career success. (2) H2, there will be a positively relationship between individual’s proactive personality and subjective career success. There were 496 respondents involved in this study. Hypothesis 1 was supported while the result shown proactive personality was positively associated with two objective measures of career success, such as salary (r= 0.15, p< 0.05) and the number of promotions over the entire career (r= 0.17, p< 0.05). In the result of final step of hierarchical regression, a significant increase in the amount of variance explained that the salary (?R²= 0.01, p< 0.05) and number of promotions over one’s entire career (?R²= 0.01, p; 0.05). Therefore, the relationship between proactive personality and objective career success was proved. On the other sides, the Hypothesis 2 was also supported while the result shown was (r= 0.31, p; 0.05). At the final step in hierarchical regression, it shown a significant increase in the amount of variance in career success by the model (?R²= 0.07, p; 0.05). Thus, this shows that the proactive behaviour has a positively relationship towards objective and subjective career success CITATION Sco99 l 2052 (Scott E., J. Michael , ; Maria L., 1999).
In other researcher, author by Fu Yang and Rebecca Chau with title “Proactive personality and career success” showed the result that leader-member exchange mediated a positive relationship between proactive personality and career success. Both the relationship between leader-member exchange and career success and the indirect relationship between proactive personality and career success were stronger when power distance level was lower. Respondents were drawn from 360 supervisor and subordinates from mainland China. The result shown that proactive personality was positively related to leader-member exchange (= 0.34, p; 0.001) and career success (= 0.17, p; 0.01). After the author controlled for leader-member exchange, they found that the relationship between proactive personality and career success was not significant (= 0.02, ns), but leader-member exchange was also positively related to career success. In other words, the proactive personality shown a spurious relationship to the leader-member exchange and career success CITATION FuY16 l 17417 (Fu ; Rebecca, 2016).
According to the researchers, Roziah, Thomas and Maimunah (2011) with the title of “Understanding proactive behaviours and career success: Evidence from an emerging economy” showed that there is a relationship between proactive behaviour and career success. This research involved 288 respondents. The result research shows that the tree significant types of networking behaviour such as engaging in professional activities (= -0.23, t= 4.96), socializing (= -0.23, t= -3.29), maintain external contacts (= 0.20, t= 2.89) towards number of promotions. This analysis revealed that there is a significant contribution to objective career success. This research was also included the survey of subjective career success. The results showed that career management (t= 4.65, p= 0.0001) and engaging in professional activities (t= 3.08, p= 0.002). The most significant factor to show the manager’s subjective career success is career planning (= 0.26. t= 4.65) CITATION Roz11 l 17417 (Roziah, Thomas, & Maimunah, 2011).
2.4.3 Social Capital and Career SuccessIt is well established that individuals in the context of boundary-less career and protean. In twenty first century, individuals are increasingly accountable for managing their own career development and for making themselves in the important position and the wider labour market CITATION Ros13 l 17417 (Roselyne, 2013).
According to the previous researcher, Yi-Ning Katherine Chen with the title of “Social capital, human capital and career success in public relations in Taiwan” stated that it has a positive relationship between social capital in trust and career success. The sample size of this study is 150 respondents. The result shown that there is nothing in subjective career success. However, social trust predicts positivity to the subjective career success, “for challenge and variety, ?= 0.58, p< 0.001; for task significance, ?= 0.57, p< 0.001; for autonomy, ?= 0.31, p< 0.001: for financial rewards, ?= 0.46, p< 0.001; for support, ?= 0.49, p< 0.001; for job comfort, ?= 0.35, p< 0.001; for promotions, ?= 0.54, p< 0.001; for career satisfaction, ?= 0.35, p< 0.001. Therefore, it shown that the social capital has a relationship with career success CITATION YiN11 l 2052 (Yi Ning, 2011).
According to previous research “Social Capital and Career Success in Learning Geography Education among Students of Tertiary Institutions in Katsina State, Nigeria” author by Aminu and Buhari, shows that it has a positive relationship between social capital and career success. The research involved 240 respondents with randomly selected by using simple random sampling techniques. With the result of Pearson correlation analysis, it shown that there is a significant positive relationship between social capital and career success with the result of r= 0.416, p= 0.00 CITATION Ami14 l 2052 (Aminu & Buhari, 2014).
2.4.4 Career Adaptability and Career SuccessSavickas (2005) defined that career adaptability as “a psychosocial construct that an individuals’ readiness and resources for coping with current job development tasks, occupational transitions and personal problems.” CITATION Cla l 17417 (Claire S) The researcher suggested also it could be used with the developmental dimensions of self and environmental exploration, career planning and decision making. In other words, an individual’s career adaptability includes explore any opportunities available around, do future planning, make decision from the alternative and manage the intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors CITATION Pet09 l 17417 (Peter A, Trancy, & Michelle, 2009).
According the researcher, Guan with title “Perceived Organizational Career Management and Career Adaptability as Predictors of Success and Turnover Intention among Chinese Employees”, they found that there is a correlated positively between career adaptability and career success. This data was collected through an online survey and involved 654 respondents. As for referring the results, it shown that the perceived organizational career management correlated positively with career adaptability, r= 0.45, p< 0.001, in salary, r= 0.23, p< 0.001, career satisfaction, r= 0.63, p< 0.01 and negatively with turnover intention, r= 0.33, p< 0.001. Besides that, the career satisfaction correlated negatively with turnover intention, r= -0.47, p <0.001. According to the result of hierarchical regression, the results showed that career adaptability related positively to in salary (= 0.21, p< 0.001) and career satisfaction (= 0.51, p< 0.001) CITATION YGu15 l 17417 (Y, 2015).
Another researchers, Yu, Guan, Zheng and Hou with title “Career Adaptability with or without career identity: How career adaptability leads to organizational success and individual career success?” also found that there is a positive relationship between career adaptability and career success. This research involved 1, 652 employees-supervisors as a respondents. The results showed that the career adaptability positively correlated with organizational success, career identity (r= 0.27, p< 0.01), job performance (r = 016, p< 0.01) and individual career success, career satisfaction (r= 0.28, p< 0.01) and yearly income (r= 0.16, p< 0.01) while negatively correlated with turnover intention (r= -0.12, p< 0.01) CITATION Hai17 l 17417 (Haibo, Xiaoyu, XIaoming, & Zhijin, 2017).
2.5 SummaryIn conclusion, there are one dependent variable, career success and five independent variables discussed in this chapter which are perceived organizational support, proactive behaviour, social capital and career adaptability. Throughout this chapter, a theoretical framework clearly be seen with each variables. For instance, the perceived organizational support lead the employees have a perception of subjective career success in their career path while their contribution had been valued by organization. The intrinsic of individual will also influence employees towards career success, such as proactive behaviour. The employees who have personality of proactive in vocation tend to manage their career. Besides that, the social capital will affect the employees also to their career. A greater social capital may help the employees have greater opportunities to be promoted. Moreover, the employees need to be able to cope the changes in their working environment. As a positive relationship with career success, the higher the employees of career adaptability, the higher the employees percept they success in their vocation.
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.0 OverviewIn this chapter, the development of research framework, hypothesis development, research design, data collection and data analysis will be discussed. This research involved questionnaires as the data collection method. The E-mail survey method cannot be used in this survey even through it is less time consuming due to that fact that the email of employees of fast food restaurant is personal and does not disclose on the public. Therefore, the printed questionnaires need to be prepared for data collection.
3.1 Development of research framework150496191770Perceived Organizational Support
00Perceived Organizational Support
Independent variables Dependent variable
3.2 Hypothesis Development
From the research framework that shown at section 3.1, the hypothesis of this study will be formed by referring to the framework. There are five hypothesis developed in this research which are shown as below.
H1: There is a relationship between perceived organizational support and career success among employees in fast food restaurant.
H2: There is a relationship between proactive behaviour and career success among employees in fast food restaurant.
H3: There is a relationship between social capital and career success among employees in fast food restaurant.
H4: There is a relationship between career adaptability and career success among employees in fast food restaurant.
H5: There is a relationship between perceived organizational support, proactive behaviour, social capital, career adaptability and career success among employees in fast food restaurant.
3.3 Research Design
The research questions of this study is to determinant the career success among employees in fast food restaurants. The survey will be conducted in individual respondents. As stated above, the data collection for this research study is printed questionnaires which means that the quantitative data collection is the element collection method in this survey. Besides that, the cross sectional study applied in this research due to the time limitation. The main purpose of this research is to study the relationship between perceived organizational support, proactive behaviour, social capital and career adaptability towards career success. Besides that, the Likert scale will be used in this research. This is because it is easy for researcher to draw conclusions, reports, results a graph from the responses of respondents. Furthermore, the respondents are not forced to express an either or selected opinion, rather allowing them to be neutral should they so choose as Likert scale questions use a scale to do the measurement CITATION Gee17 l 17417 (Gee, 2017).
3.4 Research Instrument
In this research study, there will be divided into two sections on the questionnaires, which are demographic section and variable section. In the demographic section, the respondents’ informational such as age, marital status and duration of working in the organization will be asked.
On the second section, variable section, there will have four independent variables questionnaires included. The five-point Likert scale will be applied in this research study to measure the variable results. The respondents can rank the answers based on their own opinion. For instance, 1 = “Strongly disagree”, 2 = “Disagree”, 3 = “Neutral”, 4 = “Agree”, 5 = “Strongly agree”.
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
1 2 3 4 5
Table 1: Likert scale
In this section, the research instrument was taken by the pervious researcher in the journal article to measure the significant of the variables. Table below shows the sequence arrangement of the questions which will be provided in the questionnaires.
Independent variable 1: Perceived Organizational Support
No Questions Sources
1 My organization strongly consider my goals and values as an employee. CITATION Mar121 l 17417 (Maria, 2012)2 My organization values my contribution to its well-being. CITATION Zai10 l 17417 (Zainal & Zeinab, 2010)3 My organization takes pride in my accomplishments at work. CITATION Zai10 l 17417 (Zainal & Zeinab, 2010)4 My organization care about my general satisfaction at work. CITATION Mar121 l 17417 (Maria, 2012)Independent variable 2: Proactive Behaviour
No Questions Sources
1 I take direct action to solve the problem faced in working environment. CITATION Ann10 l 2052 (Anne, Proactive Work Behaviour, 2010)2 I concentrate my efforts on doing my work. CITATION Ann10 l 2052 (Anne, Proactive Work Behaviour, 2010)3 I try to change something that I don’t like in working environment. CITATION JMi99 l 2052 (J. Michael & Maria L, 1999)4 I am good at identifying opportunities. CITATION JMi99 l 2052 (J. Michael & Maria L, 1999)Independent variable 3: Social Capital
No Questions Sources
1 My co-workers support me in my career development. CITATION And l 2052 (Andreas, Noemi, Franziska, Claire, & Daniel)2 I feel understood and accepted by my co-workers from each other. CITATION Alv12 l 2052 (Alvaro, Anabel, Javier, & Arturo, 2012)3 My supervisor treat me with kindness and consideration. CITATION Alv12 l 2052 (Alvaro, Anabel, Javier, & Arturo, 2012)4 I trust my co-worker and supervisors. CITATION Alv12 l 2052 (Alvaro, Anabel, Javier, & Arturo, 2012)Independent variable 4: Career Adaptability
No Questions Sources
1 I am confident in my abilities to be successful in this vocation. CITATION Lau15 l 2052 (Laura, Maria Cristina , & Salvatore, 2012)2 I can be patient and persistent during working period. CITATION Lau15 l 2052 (Laura, Maria Cristina , & Salvatore, 2012)3 I am openly to accept any opinion when problem made. CITATION Lau15 l 2052 (Laura, Maria Cristina , & Salvatore, 2012)4 I like to challenge myself in working environment. CITATION Lau15 l 2052 (Laura, Maria Cristina , & Salvatore, 2012)3.5 Population and Sampling
The target population is the total group of individuals from which the sample might be drawn CITATION Sau l 17417 (Saul, 2014). A research population is generally involved a large collection of individuals or objects in a research study. It is advantage of the population to research result because it can show more accurate result study. However, due to the large sizes of populations, it is difficult to researchers test every individual in the population while it is too expensive and time consuming CITATION Exp09 l 17417 (Explorable.com, 2009). It can also avoid researchers do errors due to less fatigue. Therefore, a sample will be chosen for this research study. According to this research, the targeted population is fast food restaurants’ employees in Melaka, Malaysia. For determinant of the sample size, a software of G Power will be used for defining the amount of respondent required in the research study.
3.5.1 Selection of sample
A statistical system, G Power will be a tool to determine the number of sample size in this research. G Power is a freely-available statistical software package CITATION JBC07 l 17417 (Cunningham & McCrum-Garder, 2007). It uses to power analysis and sample size calculation. G Power is chosen in this research because of its easy to use and wide range of study designs for which it caters. By using G Power, the relatively little technical knowledge of statistics can estimates and check the sample size and power required in the study CITATION JBC07 l 17417 (Cunningham & McCrum-Garder, 2007). According to Franz, Edgar and Albert (2007), G Power Three support five different ways to assess statistical power. For instance, it is not only involved the content of priori, post hoc, and compromise power analysis which covered by G Power Two, but also some new program such as sensitivity analysis and criterion analysis CITATION Fra07 l 17417 (Franz , Edgar, Albert-Georg, & Axel, 2007). Therefore, G Power Three was applied in this research to evaluate the sample size accurately. Figure 4 shows that the total sample size of this research is 129 respondents.
Figure 4: Total Sample Size (taken from G Power Three)
3.5.2 Convenience Sampling
The nonprobability sampling is applied in this research. This is because the time limitation become an obstruct to conduct a probability sampling size. Nonprobability sampling is including convenience sampling, quota sampling and purposive sampling. In this research, convenience sampling is chosen. Convenience sampling is a type of non-random sample in which the researcher selects anyone he or she happens to come across. In another words, this sampling method can get participants wherever researchers can find them CITATION Sau12 l 17417 (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2012). This sampling techniques is the most common techniques applied in the research due to it is fast, inexpensive and the respondents are readily available. Thus, the questionnaires will be distributed to the reached fast food restaurants.
3.6 Data Collection Method
For the data collection in this research, the printed questionnaires will be designed and distributed to the selected respondents. Due to lack of experience into the social research, the questions design of questionnaires will be taken from the previous researchers. It can reduce the error made and increase the validity and reliability to the result of research. Apart from the distribution of questionnaires, the employees of reached fast food restaurants involves to this research. As explained at previous section, the convenience sampling took part for data collection while it is less costly, less time used and convenience.
3.7 Data Analysis Method
For the method data analysis, the system of Statistical Software Package for Social Science also known as SPSS will be conducted. It uses to generate and show the degree of relationship between the dependent and independent variables, test the hypothesis and helps to create graphs for the demographic profile. This software was chosen to use for this study because the results shown are always simple and easily to understand. There are four main statistical test will be conducted in this research study by using SPSS system, which are descriptive statistics, reliability analysis (Cronbach’s Alpha), Pearson Correlations Coefficient and Multiple Linear Regression. The further details will be discuss at the following sections.
3.7.1 Description Analysis
Descriptive analysis is to describe the basic feature of the data in the research. It provide simple summaries about the measures result. With descriptive analysis, one simply describes what is or what the data shows. Normally, there will include the content of percentages, cumulative percentage, frequency, mean, standard deviations and mode. The descriptive analysis usually it will come with inferential statistic as well CITATION Thi l 2052 (“This chapter presents”). The measures of variability can also be test through this descriptive analysis, such as range and standard deviation. The range is test the difference between highest value and lowest value. The standard deviation is a measure of dispersion for one variable that indicates an average distance between the score and the mean.
3.7.2 Reliability Analysis
A reliability analysis is necessary to researchers as to guide the study in order to get the most consistency outcome towards the variables testing. Reliability test is one of the basic instrument whereby researchers can make decision easily. In this research study, the Cronbach’s Alpha will be the tool to conduct the reliability analysis. Cronbach’s Alpha was developed by Lee Cronbach in 1951. This analysis usually be used in social sciences, business, medical and other disciplines. There are different reports about the acceptable values of alpha, ranging from 0.70 to 0.95 CITATION Moh11 l 2052 (Mohsen & Reg, 2011). A low value of alpha could be due to a low number of questions, poor interrelated between items or heterogeneous constructs. If alpha is too high, it may suggest that some items are redundant as they are testing the same question but in a different section CITATION Moh11 l 2052 (Mohsen & Reg, 2011).
3.7.3 Pearson Correlation Coefficient
This Pearson Correlation test is a statistical method to determine that how strong the relationship between the changes of one variable to another. In other words, it is to determine whether both variables is correlated or not. The relationship between both variables can be categorized into three different types which are positive, negative and zero effects (-1 r 1) CITATION Oft l 2052 (“Often several quantitative”, n.d.). Therefore, the aim of using correlation method for this study is to determine every single indicators do have relationship to the dependent variables.
3.7.4 Multiple Linear Regression
The regression analysis is a statistical technique for estimating the relationship among variables which have reason and result relationCITATION Gul13 l 2052 (Gulden & Nese, 2013). It helps users to understand clearly about how significant does the relationship between the indicators with the career success among the employees in fast food restaurants in Melaka. Besides that, it helps also to the researcher to identify which of the indicators are affecting the most towards the perception career success of employees.
In conclusion, there are four indicators included to test the relationship towards career success of employees in fast food restaurants, which are perceived organizational support, proactive behaviour, social capital and career adaptability. The hypothesis also been formed according to the research framework. The questionnaires will be used to collect data from the respondents. Besides that, due to the fact that the time limitation is a main issues, therefore, the cross sectional study will conduct for the research. For the instrument, the demographic section and variable section will be taken part in the questionnaires. The variable section will form with the Likert scale in order to more understand the opinion of the respondents. The convenience sampling will also be conducted to this research while there is a limitation of time to conduct the study. It is also less cost and convenience to the researchers to collect data from the respondents. Moreover, the 129 respondents should be taken part for this study according to the result of G Power Three. Besides, the description analysis, reliability analysis, Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Regression are used as to make sure the accuracy and consistency of the study.