Chapter 2

2.1. Introduction:
The theme of this project is to make a firefighting robot at the unexpected situation to extinguish fire and smoke and this type of research has been going for a long time in different parts of the world. This project takes inspiration from all those project and helps to know how firefighting works and how it can be modified for the welfare of this project. State of art robotic rover are made all over the world and their exquisite feature and methodology of their robot can help to understand in depth how this machine can run in the long run and properly.
2.2. Analysis on firefighting robot:
In the modern days of 21st century, technology advanced to a different dimension where fire extinguishing with state the art equipment made with calculated electrical and mechanical modification. Remote region or Industries have many possibilities to occur fire accidents. For example, enormous fire and damages can be occurred by electric leakages in garment warehouses, cotton mills and fuel storage tanks. Within the worst of cases and situations, fire causes heavy losses both financially and by pickings lives. Nowadays to protect human lives, wealth and surroundings, robotics is the important way to find out solution. By an embedded system is manufactured in some kind of firefighting robots. They have ability to navigate with alone when scan the blazes of fire. As a path guide in a fireplace device or as an emergency device in normal cases the robot can be used. The robot is designed to searches and douses a fire before it could be spread out of range and control. These technologies are produced around the world with valiant effort. Some of them are discussed below.

2.2.1. Fire Fighting Robot Remotely Operated By Android Application:
Android application based firefighting robot has main intention to design for remote operation. Using wireless communication to pump and spray water on fire from water tanker. 8051 microcontroller is used for desired operation. Using android application to send direction from the transmitter to the receiver for controlling the movement of the robot. 8051 is interfaced by two motors at the receiver side and for the movement of the vehicle uses two of them and remaining one to perform the arm of the robot. Android OS based Smartphone or Tablet operates remotely. With the advantage of being having enough range to transmitter acted as a remote control by the android device, while the receiver has a Bluetooth device sustained to the microcontroller to drive DC motors through the motor driver IC for specific task. The person controls the operation by watching view on a display using wireless camera.1

Fig: 2.1: Fire Fighting Robot Remotely Operated By Android Application.1
2.2.2. GSM based Fire Fighting Robot
Utilizing firefighting robot can restrain fire in houses, workplaces and shops. This robot has ability to moves in confined fire area in our house, offices, shopping malls etc. This robot uses IR sensors to sense fire and at that point putting it off even without anybody. After that it sends the message immediately to a responsible
person. Using techniques of time divisions multiple access SMS can be sent to a number of devices and boards in the locality to made this project efficient by incorporating SIMs. It can be possible to control everything automatically through embedded systems by GSM based firefighting robot.2

Fig: 2.2: GSM based Fire Fighting Robot2
2.2.3. The Fire Ox
A few firefighting robots carries water tanks, The Fire OX is one of them. It is designed to fast response unit, suppresses fire, assists in search and rescue and can deal with hazardous materials. Lockheed Martin created a Squad Mission Support System for assisting soldiers with their apparatus in the field, it was retrofitted with a water tank and hose for conveyance. It is actually semi-autonomous device and it has a good control quality. It can be controlled from up to 200 miles away. Because of its mobility it can cross circumstances perilous for people, limiting losses and rescue time. It can also be utilized in a large number of circumstances including wildfires and structure fires.3

Fig: 2.2.3: The Fire Ox3
2.2.4. Turbine Aided Firefighting machine (TAF 20)
Turbine Aided Firefighting Machine (TAF 20) built by Emicontrols, a subsidiary of the TechnoAlpin Group. It utilizes a turbine as a creative strategy in firefighting. Implied for little spaces like passages, It has the capability to move obstacles with its bulldozer blades, clear smoke with its turbine and focus its water splash from mist to jet. It’s a followed vehicle that uses the turbine to automize water into a substantial fog that spreads more zone while utilizing less water. In specific cases, the water can be engaged into a powerful jet fit for showering 3500 liters per minute. Operators can be operated with safe distance like 500 meters away, but it is limited like other firefighting robots because of its connection with a water hose.

Fig: 2.2.4: Turbine Aided Firefighting machine (TAF 20)4
2.2.5. Thermite RS2-T1 fire fighting robot
Howe and How technologies built a small tank for the U.S Army is known as Thermite Robot. This remote control vehicle has ability to pump 500 gallons of water per minute with suitable hose. Utilizing mounted cameras, it can go into extremely perilous situations, similar to fierce blazes, while it can be controlled from up to a quarter mile away. It is weighing at 1640 lbs, it was designed as an IED(Improvised Explosive Devices) neutralizer. It can also be utilized as a fire neutralizer because of some firefighting modifications. Using some of the water pumped as coolant throughout its body for an innovative cooling system that provides consistency is known as onboard. In spite of the fact that it pumps a third less water than a fire engine (1500 gallons per minute) it also costs significantly less.5

Fig: 2.2.5: Thermite RS2-T1 fire fighting robot5
2.2.6: Tactical Hazardous Operation Robot (THOR)
The U.S. Navy’s Shipboard Autonomous Firefighting Robot (SAFFIR) program developed the Tactical Hazardous Operation Robot (THOR). It’s actually a humanoid robot. It has ability to crossing shaky floors on ships as well as using hoses and opening doors. Naval force ships have hazardous material onboard with negligible space to move, so stifling fires is paramount. It’s heights 177 cm like as average human heights. It can navigate fires using Sterioscopic thermal imaging and LIDAR(light detection and ranging) sensors and has effectively put out compartment fires alongside the help of a man. The Objective is for THOR to walk and work semi-autonomously with the assistance of a remote operator. As of now, be that as it may, there are still a few troubles. The machine is slow and efficient to fire and water damage. These difficulties are being settled with the goal that it may extinguish dangerous for people, making it impossible to get close.6

Fig: 2.2.6: THOR (right side view)6 Fig: 2.2.7: THOR (front view)6

2.3: Summary:
In this chapter, the discussion about the state of the art technology made by other researchers and organizations were conducted. It was followed how technology like The Fire Ox, TAF 20, Thermite and THOR works and how much they show similarities with our project device.
The Automatic Fire Fighting Robot has the base of this state of the art technological device which uses advanced robotics design and smart computerized system which takes the feedback of the sensors and analyses the data to perform the right set of section just like above mentioned technologies. This insight will help us achieve our goal in the long run help fulfill our objectives.