• Culture can classify into role, power, task and person.
• Power culture means the key to the entire organization lies in the centre, surrounded by a constantly expanding internal and influence circle.
• Role culture means the individual is the roles occupant, but even if the individual leaves, the character still will continue. This culture shares a number of issues in common with Weber’s description of the ‘ideal-type’ bureaucracy.
• The mission culture is work or project oriented. Task culture is often associated with the organizations that use matrix or project-based structure design.
• Deaf culture is an unusual culture. It doesn’t exist in many organizations, but a lot of people agree with some of its values. In this culture, the individual is the focus; if there is a structure or an organization, it can only help and serve its internal individuals to promote their own interests without surpassing any overriding goals.
• The importance of cultural differences is that you must remember that every interaction between you and others is understood as a different background, experience and values from them. This will help you to guide understanding and sympathy, not judgment, which is a very important change.
• Hofstede’s dimension of culture theory and application.
• A cross-cultural communication framework developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the influence of a social culture on the value of members, and how those values are related to behavior, using structure derived from factor analysis.
? Hofstede’s 5 dimensions of culture:
o Power distance vs power respect qualifies how well individuals accept the different levels of power that may be evident among them. In some nations, subordinates are expected to obey instructions blindly from their superiors.
o Individualism vs collectivism is looks at the relationship between individuals and others in their society. Some nations value and encourage more individual action and decision making than group actions.
o Uncertainty avoidance vs uncertainty acceptance is looks at how well individuals accept risk and ambiguous.
o Masculinity vs femininity extent to which a society masculine values like assertiveness, status and financial rewards versus feminine values like quality of life.
o Long term oriented vs short term oriented helps to distinguish the difference in thinking between Eastern and Western societies.
• Organizational politics is informal, informal, and sometimes behind the scenes to influence organizations, increase power, sell ideas, or achieve other goals.
• Organisational politics have 4 types: the weed (informal), the wood (informal), the high ground (formal) and the rock (formal).
• Differentiation between personal, decisional, structural and organisational change:
? Personality change include communication, motivation, leadership and interaction within the team. This focus need to change the way the problem is solved, the way in which employees learn new skills, and even how employees see themselves, the nature of work, and organization.
? Decision-making changes in normal business operations. It is necessary for management to adjust the company’s strategy to achieve company goals and even change the organization’s mission statement based on the needs of the external environment.
? Structural changes involve levels of power, goals, structural characteristics, administrative procedures, and management systems. Almost all changes in the way organizations are managed are part of structural change.
? Organisational change represents a specific context in which various types of cynicism can arise.
• Power classified into coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, expert power, referent power.
? Coercive power involves the use of threats to make people do what they want to do. In organizational settings, it translates into threat transfer, dismissal and downgrade. It basically forces people to succumb to their own needs for fear of losing something.
? Reward power use rewards, allowances, new projects or training opportunities, better roles and financial benefits to influence people.
? Legitimate power from an official position of a person, whether in an organization, or in a noble or government field. The duration of this power is very short.
? Expert power is a kind of personal power, its origin is attributed to the individual’s own skills and expertise, and this kind of skill and professional knowledge is of high quality and is not easy to obtain.
? Referent power is owned by celebrities and movie stars because they have a large number of followers in the crowd that like them, identify with them and follow them. Therefore, they have made a long-lasting impact on a large number of people.
• Dimensions of power classified into physical power, informational power and emotional power.
? Physical power is the power of strength.
? Informational power is comes from knowledge.
? Emotional power is social power that affect using emotion and body language.
• A strong corporate culture that helps adapt to a rapidly changing world is closely related to strong financial performance. For example, Cathay Pacific Airways has a rich corporate culture and believes that the value of the company’s daily work is very important. They have been very careful to do this and continue to develop successfully around the world.
• Cathay Pacific staff members are remaining true to the values of their brand by giving the best services to all passengers. This help to improve their performance and customer experience.
• Relating to the management and leadership of Cathay Pacific, relying solely on power and politics involving resources, money, personnel, time and power.
• The main factor used by Cathay Pacific may be the cause of the company’s failure or success.
• There are two parts of politics in Cathay Pacific.
? Those who work in their own hands, let those who work in the right way and at the same time have the right to have or have a job.
? Work and negotiate with manipulator resistance.
• These activities have enabled Cathay Pacific to obtain, develop and use power and other resources to obtain its own preferred results in the absence of choice or inconsistency in selection.
• The purpose of impact management is to obtain Cathay Pacific’s endorsed goals, or to obtain approved targets through unapproved influence.
• In case power is using in proper way, an employee doing work in Cathay Pacific for last ten years and he is performing tasks very well and also working for the prosperity of Cathay Pacific, then he deserves for the reward because of his performance so the manager of Cathay Pacific has to give him reward due to his personality or his performance which he performed in Cathay Pacific.
• If power is used in a negative way, if an employee works for Cathay Pacific, because of any personal conflicts with the manager in the past ten years, he deserves to be rewarded and due to personal conflicts, the manager does not want to reward him in this case, the ability to reward in a negative way use.
• Culture can classify into role, power, task and person.